Introduction of MC3R
MC3R, encoded by MC3R gene, belongs to a seven-pass transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor family. It is one of five melanocortin receptors named MC1R-MC5R, which are expressed in diverse tissues and exert multiple physiological functions including normal pigmentation, steroid production, energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and exocrine function. MC3R is primarily expressed in the central nervous system and involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis.
|Basic Information of MC3R|
|Protein Name||Melanocortin receptor 3|
|Aliases||MC3, OB20, OQTL, BMIQ9, MC3-R|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of MC3R Membrane Protein
MC3R is a specific receptor for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is expressed in tissues other than the adrenal cortex and melanocytes. The activated MC3R by ACTH and MSH can stimulate the activation of G proteins that activate adenylate cyclase, resulting in a subsequent increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and regulating diverse cellular signal responses. Studies have indicated that MC3R influences energy intake and energy expenditure. It is observed that mutations in MC3R gene are associated with risk of adiposity gain during early childhood. Hence, MC3R may play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and can act as a potential therapeutic target for obesity. Besides, MC3R also participates in the regulation of a circadian rhythm of activity related to feeding behavior and the anti-inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that MC3R may be involved in the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, arthritis, dental arthritis and inflammatory arthritis.
Fig.1 Dimerization between MC3R and GHSR1a results in amplification of MC3R signaling and attenuation of GHSR1a signaling. (Martin, 2015)
Application of MC3R Membrane Protein in Literature
The meta-analysis study shows that Thr6Lys and Val81Ile in MC3R gene are associated with the obesity susceptibility in childhood. But the conclusion needs more researches because of high clinical heterogeneity.
The article suggests that MC3 and MC4 receptors have an inhibitory role in food intake and this effect is probably mediated by NMDA glutamate receptors in neonatal chickens.
The study suggests that α-MSH/ACTH, AgRP and MRAP2 may interact at the MC4R(/MC3R) interface to control energy balance. And it is proved that MRAP2 (and MRAP) is involved in fine-tuning the constitutive activity and ligand sensitivity and selectivity of both MC3R and MC4R in vertebrates.
The study shows that the expressions of MC1-5R in all lymphocyte subtypes reduce in responders and increase in the non-responder. And in responders, the MC2R, MC3R and MC4R gene expressions in CD8+ Tc and CD19+ B lymphocytes significantly decrease.
The study summarizes the mutations in MC3R gene are involved in human obesity and proposes MC3R mutations can act as potential therapeutic strategies for obesity.
MC3R Preparation Options
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