TAS2R5 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of TAS2R5

Taste receptor type 2 member 5 (TAS2R5 or T2R5) is a member of bitter taste receptors, which are typical G-protein coupled receptors (GPR) and are normally found on the surface of the tongue. TAS2R5 is encoded by TAS2R5 gene, mapped to chromosome 7q34. Comprising 299 amino acids, the molecular weight of TAS2R5 is predicted to be 34 kDa. The predominant expression of TAS2R5 is found in cells of the palate epithelia and tongue. TAS2R5 is a 7-transmembrane receptor protein. It is documented that TAS2R5 gene is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception and is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes on chromosome 7. So far, the 3D structure of TAS2R5 hasn't been determined.

Basic Information of TAS2R5
Protein Name Taste receptor type 2 member 5
Gene Name TAS2R5
Aliases Taste receptor type 2 member 5
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q9NYW4
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 299

Function ofTAS2R5 Membrane Protein

TAS2R5 is a member of TAS2R family, which are typical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) on the apical surface, and their downstream intracellular signaling effectors, including the G protein α-Gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), and the transduction channel TRPM5. As a bitter taste receptor, TAS2R5 can be activated by a broad spectrum of putative bitter tastants, mediating the bitter taste transduction pathway, a signaling cascade in taste buds of the tongue presumed to warn against ingestion of potentially toxic compounds. Moreover, it is documented that TAS2Rs can also be expressed in airway smooth muscle cells and cause significant airway dilation/relaxation upon activation. Also, the outside of tongue expression of TAS2Rs are specifically localized to motile cilia on human airway epithelial cells, and upon treatment with bitter compounds, the epithelial cells showed an increase in ciliary beat. The evolutionary explanation for TAS2Rs, including TAS2R5, may constitute a new therapeutic target in chronic obstructive lung diseases such as asthma.

Gene location of TAS2R5. Fig.1 Gene location of TAS2R5.

Application of TAS2R5 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Adler E., et al. A novel family of mammalian taste receptors. Cell. 2000, 100(6). PubMed ID: 10761934

    This article identifies a new family of forty to eighty rodent and human G protein-coupled receptors, including TAS2R5, specifically expressed in part of taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. These candidate taste receptors (T2Rs) are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans and are organized in the genome in clusters.

  2. Risso D., et al. Genetic variation in taste receptor pseudogenes provides evidence for a dynamic role in human evolution. BMC Evol Biol. 2014, 14: 198. PubMed ID: 25216916

    This article explains the higher frequency of TAS2R6P derived alleles outside Africa as a result of the balancing selection acting on the closely linked TAS2R5 gene.

  3. Grassin-Delyle S., et al. The expression and relaxant effect of bitter taste receptors in human bronchi. Respir Res. 2013, 14: 134. PubMed ID: 24266887

    This article suggests a predominant role for TAS2R5, 10 and 14 in bitter taste agonist-induced relaxation by receptor expression analysis together with the use of selective agonists, and makes a conclusion that the TAS2Rs, including TAS2R5, may constitute a new therapeutic target in chronic obstructive lung diseases such as asthma.

  4. Garcia-Esparcia P., et al. Functional genomics reveals dysregulation of cortical olfactory receptors in Parkinson disease: novel putative chemoreceptors in the human brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013, 72(6): 524-39. PubMed ID: 23656994

    This article indicates that cortical olfactory receptors (ORs) and taste receptors (TASRs) are altered in Parkinson disease patients by functional genomics analysis. At parkinsonian and premotor stages in the frontal cortex area 8 in Parkinson disease patient brains, olfactory receptors OR52L1, OR11E1, OR2L13, OR2J3, and OR1H1 and two taste receptors TAS2R50 and TAS2R5 are down-regulated.

  5. Hayes J.E., et al. Allelic variation in TAS2R bitter receptor genes associates with variation in sensations from and ingestive behaviors toward common bitter beverages in adults. Chem Senses. 2011, 36(3): 311-9. PubMed ID: 21163912

    This article explains some changeability in the perception of the bitterness of espresso coffee by a haploblock across TAS2R2, TAS2R5, and TAS2R4.

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