Introduction of TAS2R8
Taste receptor type 2 member 8 (TAS2R8 or T2R8) is also known as Taste receptor family B member 5 (TRB5), which is encoded by TAS2R8 gene. TAS2R8 belongs to bitter taste receptor family, a set of typical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Similar to other TAS2Rs, TAS2R8 also has a 7-transmembrane structure and conserved short N- and C-terminal domains and the intracellular domains share significant conservation. TAS2R8 gene is mapped to chromosome 12p13.2, and it is organized in clusters and genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans.
|Basic Information of TAS2R8|
|Protein Name||Taste receptor type 2 member 8|
|Aliases||Taste receptor family B member 5, TRB5|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of TAS2R8 Membrane Protein
As a member of TAS2R family, TAS2R8 mediates the perception of bitter taste in the vertebrates. The canonical distribution of TAS2R8 is found in taste buds of the tongue, where they initiate bitter taste perception to avoid harmful toxins and noxious substances and thus is critical to animal and human survival. However, numerous evidence has shown that TAS2Rs, including TAS2R60, are widely expressed in several extraoral systems, including the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary systems, as well as in brain and immune cells, indicating the diverse biological functions. TAS2R8 has been found to be activated by bitter compounds in vitro. In addition, several well-known agonists of specific bitter taste receptors have been tested to exhibit anti-cancer effects. It is reported that cell migration, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinases activity are inhibited when TAS2Rs is over-expressed, indicating the chemotherapeutic potential of TAS2Rs. The polymorphisms of TAS2Rs are closely associated with human disorders.
Fig.1 Mechanisms by which five taste qualities are transduced in taste cells. (Chaudhari, 2010)
Application of TAS2R8 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article demonstrates that 6 candidate SNPs, 5 genes (TAS2R8, TAS2R7, DLL1, LBP, and LGALS3), and 9 pathways that may contribute to the susceptibility of glioma are identified by using the ICSN Pathway to analyze glioma GWAS data.
This article identified 13 AAbs (CTAG1B, CTAG2, TP53, RNF216, PPHLN1, PIP4K2C, ZBTB16, TAS2R8, WBP2NL, DOK2, PSRC1, MN1, TRIM21) that distinguished BLBC from controls with 33% sensitivity and 98% specificity.
This article demonstrates that TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 are endogenously expressed in NB cancer cells and they play noticeable roles in inhibiting the stemness, migration, and invasion of these cancer cells. The effects of these two TAS2Rs on cancer stemness were identified by examining CSC marker expression, self-renewal potentials, and tumorigenicity.
The authors challenge 25 human taste 2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) with 104 natural or synthetic bitter chemicals in a heterologous expression system and find that the detection of the numerous bitter chemicals is related to the molecular receptive ranges of hTAS2Rs.
This article reviews the functional classes of taste cells and synapses in the taste bud, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain.
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