Introduction of ADGRB1
ADGRB1, also known as adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B1 or brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), is a protein encoded by the human BAI1 gene. It belongs to the adhesion G protein-coupled receptors family which comprises a group of 33 seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) proteins that form the second largest family of GPCRs in human. Studies have shown that ADGRB1 is characterized by the presence of large N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) which contain multiple subdomains.
|Basic Information of ADGRB1|
|Protein Name||Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B1|
|Aliases||Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of ADGRB1 Membrane Protein
During the past years, studies have shown that the expression of ADGRB1 is rich in neurons, astrocytes, and macrophages. And low level of ADGRB1 has also been found in other tissues. It has been reported that the aGPCRs are widely distributed and critical for many physiological processes, including cell adhesion, neural development, angiogenesis, and immune system function. As a member of the aGPCRs, ADGRB1 could act as a receptor of great physiological interest for it plays a critical role in regulating macrophage phagocytosis, muscle development and synaptic plasticity in the brain. And the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic properties of ADGRB1 have also been widely studied. Recently, ADGRB1 is considered as a phagocytic receptor which has the ability to recognize phosphatidylserine exposed on apoptotic cells. What’s more, ADGRB1 has been shown to function upstream of the signaling module comprised of ELMO/Dock180/Rac proteins, thereby facilitating the cytoskeletal reorganization necessary to mediate the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells.
Fig.1 Multiple functions of BAI1. (Zhu, et.al. 2016)
Application of ADGRB1 Membrane Protein in Literature
1. Mathema VB, Na-Bangchang K. Regulatory roles of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) protein in inflammation, tumorigenesis and phagocytosis: A brief review. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2017, 111: 81-6. PubMed ID: 28259299
This article provides a comprehensive knowledge of the latest research of BAI1 for possible biomedical therapeutics.
2. Bolyard C, et.al. BAI1 Orchestrates Macrophage Inflammatory Response to HSV Infection-Implications for Oncolytic Viral Therapy. Clinical Cancer Research. 2017, 23(7): 1809-19. PubMed ID: 27852701
This article reveals that BAI has a new role in facilitating macrophage anti-viral responses. And, arming oHSV with antiangiogenic Vstat120 also shields them from inflammatory macrophage antiviral response, without reducing safety.
3. Kishore A, et.al. Stalk-dependent and stalk-independent signaling by the adhesion G protein-coupled receptors GPR56 (ADGRG1) and BAI1 (ADGRB1). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2016, 291(7): 3385-94. PubMed ID: 26710850
This article reveals that the activation of certain pathways downstream of aGPCRs is stalk-dependent, whereas signaling to other pathways is stalk-independent.
4. Billings EA, et.al. The adhesion GPCR BAI1 mediates macrophage ROS production and microbicidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Sci. Signal. 2016, 9(413): ra14. PubMed ID: 26838550
This article suggests that BAI1 could mediate the clearance of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating both phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase activation, thereby coupling bacterial detection to the cellular microbicidal machinery.
5. Chao A, et.al. BAI1-associated protein 2-like 1 (BAIAP2L1) is a potential biomarker in ovarian cancer. PloS one. 2015, 10(7): e0133081. PubMed ID: 26222696
This article suggests that BAIAP2L1 can be used as a biomarker for human ovarian cancer. And the role of BAIAP2L1 in context of the insulin receptor signaling pathways of cancer cells is warranted for developing cancer therapeutics by targeting cancer-specific metabolism.
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