Introduction of AQP11
Aquaporin-11 (AQP11), encoded by AQP11 gene, is one of the latest aquaporin (AQP) family members found and it is widely in mammalian tissues with highest expression in testis, moderate expression in thymus, kidney, liver, and intestine, and lower expression in brain and lung. AQP11 differs from the other AQPs by its unique asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) box, suggesting a different pore structure and function. It is notable that this protein is expressed on the organelle membrane rather than on the plasma membrane. AQP11 gene is mapped to chromosome 11q14.
|Basic Information of AQP11|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of AQP11 Membrane Protein
The function of AQP11 is not known clearly, but as a member of AQPs, AQP11 may be also involved in the transport of small molecules except for water, such as urea, chloride, heavy metal salts, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, playing unexpected cellular roles. In addition, AQP11 is reported to present on the endoplasmic reticulum of mouse renal proximal tubule cells with a large amount and AQP11 knockout mice is an effective model of renal cysts, a process that may be associated with autophagy. Numerous studies have shown that AQP11-/- cells have strong autophagy behavior before and after renal cysts. The antifreeze ability of mammalian sperm and the fertilization ability of frozen-thawed sperm, the water transport at the choroid plexus and blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the brain are associated with AQP11 protein.
Fig.1 Effect of Aqp11 deletion on postnatal kidney development. (Rutzler, 2017)
Application of AQP11 Membrane Protein in Literature
The authors use green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 transgenic mice and AQP11(-/-) mice to reveal that AQP11 is involved in the autophagy activity before and after kidney cysts development. And during the cyst formation, the expression of apoptosis-related and ER stress-related caspase genes are upregulated.
This article utilizes Aqp11-/- mice to reveal that apparent cysts are not membrane-enclosed structures but represent proximal tubule dilations, suggesting that Aqp11 deletion of mice is linked to the severity of cyst-like disease.
This article demonstrates that AQP11 can be detected in the head and tail of bull spermatozoa and its relative amount is related to the resilience of the spermatozoa to withstand cryopreservation.
In this article, the authors identify 124 proteins from about 1,200 candidates by quantitative proteomic analysis using Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) and these proteins may be new target molecules for the treatment of proximal tubular cysts and helpful to explore the functional roles of AQP11 in the kidney.
The authors use AQP11-deficient mice to verify that AQP11 is localized at the epithelium of the choroid plexus and at the endothelium of the brain capillary, suggesting that AQP11 may be involved in water transport at the choroid plexus and blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the brain.
AQP11 Preparation Options
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