Creative Biolabs is a leading service provider that focuses on polyclonal, monoclonal, and recombinant antibody development for research, diagnosis, and potential therapeutics. Based on our extensive experience and state-of-the-art platforms, Creative Biolabs now offers a series of biomarker-specific IVD (in vitro diagnostic) antibody development services to clients globally. Especially, we introduce our IVD antibody development services for nitrotyrosine marker. We are confident that our commitment to science and research will enable us to offer you the best products and services.

Nitrotyrosine

Nitrotyrosine is generated by the modification of protein tyrosine residues by peroxynitrite produced by the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide. Protein tyrosine nitration is induced by reactive nitrogen species including nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrite and leads to a nitro group adduct on susceptible tyrosine residues. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is able to react with peroxynitrite to form oxo-metal complexes and NO2, thereby promoting the nitration reaction. Detections reflecting the tyrosine nitration have been regarded as indicators of oxidative stress, in spite of the poor accuracy of intermediates and mechanism for nitration in vivo. Free nitrotyrosine stands for the turnover of nitrated proteins and enables to be determined through tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with HPLC or GC, as the present gold standard approach. Other ways of measuring protein nitration are immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical tests depended on anti 3-NO2-Tyr antibodies. Besides, nitration of proteins and lipoproteins may serve an important role in pathophysiological, for instance, nitrated LDL is received by macrophages resulting in foam cell production.

Production of dityrosine and nitrotyrosine. Nitrotyrosine is proven to be an indicator of inflammation and nitric oxide generation. Fig.1 Production of dityrosine and nitrotyrosine. Nitrotyrosine is proven to be an indicator of inflammation and nitric oxide generation. (Zhan, 2015)

Nitrotyrosine Marker of Myocardial Ischemia

Nitrotyrosine production has been discovered in vascular and myocardial tissue in both healthy individuals and those with cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a research of 100 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), plasma protein-bound nitrotyrosine levels were displayed to be remarkably higher among patients with CAD, even after regulation for typical risk factors for CVD and CRP. Besides, nitrotyrosine generation on SERCA2a is notably higher in cardiac tissue of humans with cardiomyopathy compared with healthy controls. In addition, studies also demonstrated that serum nitrotyrosine is obviously raised after coronary vasospasm caused by acetylcholine stimulation, showing that serum nitrotyrosine may be a possible biomarker of transient MI and may contribute to the development of episodes of vasospastic angina pectoris.

Expression of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and 3-nitrotyrosine in the infarcted rat heart. Nitrotyrosine is a promising biomarker of MI. Fig.2 Expression of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and 3-nitrotyrosine in the infarcted rat heart. Nitrotyrosine is a promising biomarker of MI. (Sun, 2008)

Nitrotyrosine Marker of Heart Failure

HF is a situation that occurs after the heart is weakened or damaged, or the pumping action of heart is not powerful enough to pump blood. In chronic heart failure (CHF), the existence of a mutual benefit between nitrosative stress and inflammation has been proven. Nitrotyrosine is a marker of nitrosative stress which can be produced by both “MPO-dependent” and “Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS)-dependent” pathway. Raised nitrotyrosine and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) were discovered in biopsies from skeletal muscle and venous endothelial cells in patients with CHF. In addition, it has demonstrated that the serum/plasma levels of NO, nitrite, and myeloperoxidase in patients with HF were raised as well.

3-Nitrotyrosine accumulation during AF (atrial fibrillation). Fig.3 3-Nitrotyrosine accumulation during AF (atrial fibrillation). (Lenaerts, 2013)

Nitrotyrosine Marker of Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress is a general adjuster in pathogenicity of defined cardiovascular risk factors. Both reversible and irreversible functional oxidative of cellular proteins are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Detections reflective of tyrosine nitration have been employed as indicators of oxidative stress, regardless of the controversial precision of measuring method. As a marker of tyrosine nitration, free nitrotyrosine reflects the turnover of nitrated proteins and are able to be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with HPLC or GC. What's more, immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical assays are also available to quantify protein nitration, with the utilization of anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies.

IVD Antibody Development Services for Nitrotyrosine Marker

In recent years, IVD technologies are undergoing rapid development. IVD antibodies have been widely used in the diagnosis of numerous diseases. Antibody-based immunoassays are the most generally used diagnostic assays for the detection of biomolecules. With advanced technology and professional scientists, Creative Biolabs is capable of offering a full range of IVD antibody development services against various markers for global customers, such as nitrotyrosine marker. In addition, Creative Biolabs provides one-stop diagnostic immunoassay development services, including feasibility analysis, assay design, assay protocol establishment, validation, and production.

For more details and information, please feel free to contact us and get a quote.

References

  1. Zhan, X. (2015). “Mass spectrometry analysis of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins.” Mass spectrometry reviews 34(4), 423-448.
  2. Sun, Y. (2008). “Myocardial repair/remodelling following infarction: roles of local factors.” Cardiovascular research.
  3. Lenaerts, I. (2013). “Role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a sheep model of persistent atrial fibrillation”. Europace 15(5), 754-760.


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