KCNQ3 is encoded by the KCNQ3 gene which is located on 8q24 in human. The molecular mass of KCNQ3 is about 96 kDa. It belongs to the wildly-expressed potassium channel family. KCNQ3 is mainly expressed in the brain. Just like KCNQ2, KCNQ3 can also be ubiquitinated by NEDD4L, an E3 ligase. And it has also been found that KCNQ3 can be phosphorylated.
|Basic Information of KCNQ3|
|Protein Name||Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3|
|Aliases||KQT-like 3, Potassium channel subunit alpha KvLQT3, Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv7.3|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
|Transmembrane Times||Multi-pass membrane|
KCNQ3 combines with KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 to form a potassium channel. KCNQ3 also takes part in chemical synaptic transmission, membrane hyperpolarization, calmodulin binding and many other biological processes. It has been proved that the mutations of KCNQ3 are associated with seizures, benign familial neonatal 2 (BFNS2), which is a disorder characterized by clusters of seizures occurring at the beginning of life. Besides, the expression of KCNQ3 also contributes to the etiology of bipolar disorder (BPD), and DNA methylation of KCNQ3 may be important in the etiopathogenesis of BPD. Accordingly, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in the plasma membrane can influence the KCNQ channels, including KCNQ3. And PIP2 can interact with four different domains synergistically to alter the activity of KCNQ3, including the A-B helix linker, the junction between S6 and the A helix, the S4-S5 linker and the S2-S3 linker. Beyond that, KCNQ3 and KCNQ2 also play central roles in regulating pyramidal neuron excitability and spiking behavior.
Fig.1 KCNQ topology. VSD voltage-sensing domain. (Manville, 2018)
It has been revealed that KCNQ3 and KCNQ2 can form heteromer, underlying the neuronal M-current, which suppresses neuronal excitability to protect against seizures. This article develops the new anticonvulsants by achieving similar KCNQ2/3 opening and increases the maximal effect.
Accordingly, KCNQ3 can regulate the KCNQ3 K+ channel, but the mechanism is not very clear. So, the authors in this article find four cytoplasmic channel domains that PIP2 will interact with, they are the A-B helix linker, the junction between S6 and the A helix, the S4-S5 linker and the S2-S3 linker.
This article reports a novel mutation in KCNQ3 from a family in which early onset epilepsy and neurocognitive deficits. It reveals that KCNQ3 can also be found in patients with more severe phenotypes including intellectual disability, just like KCNQ2.
Mutations in the KCNQ3 gene cause neonatal epilepsies with wide phenotypic heterogeneity. Authors in this article describe clinical, genetic, and functional data from 17 patients/families. One substitution is found in KCNQ3.
Synthetic gabapentinoids are wildly used in several indications including epilepsy, neuropathic pain, anxiety, and alcohol withdrawal. And authors in this article reveal that gabapentin may be an activator of KCNQ3.
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