PANX1 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of PANX1

Pannexin 1 (PANX1), belonging to the pannexin family, is encoded by the PANX1 gene in humans. PANX1 is a membrane protein with 4 transmembrane domains and cytoplasmic N and C termini. PANX1 is widely expressed in eye, thyroid, prostate, kidney, liver, and central nervous system, including cortex, striatum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. PANX1 gene is mapped to chromosome 11q21. Studies in Xenopus oocytes suggest that PANX1 alone and in combination with PANX2 may form cell type-specific gap junctions with distinct properties. An important paralog of this gene is PANX3.

Basic Information of PANX1
Protein Name Pannexin-1
Gene Name PANX1
Aliases PANX1, MRS1, UNQ2529/PRO6028
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID Q96RD7
Transmembrane Times 4
Length (aa) 426

Function of PANX1 Membrane Protein

PANX1 is able to support large, voltage-activated outward currents to respond to a variety of physiological stimuli, including low oxygen or shear stress in erythrocytes and mechanical action on airway epithelial cells. Several receptors have been shown to activate PANX1 through protein-protein interaction or by the use of intracellular stimuli such as Ca2+ or extracellular K+. Notably, the activation by K+ does not require the depolarization effect of the ion and the K+ concentration required to activate PANX1 is unphysiologically high, such concentrations are observed under pathological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic CNS injury. In addition, PANX1 is permeant to ATP and can represent the elusive ATP release channel in many tissues. It is documented that truncating mutations in PANX1 gene have been shown to promote breast cancer metastasis to the lungs by allowing cancer cells to survive mechanical stretch in the microcirculation. Disruptions of PANX1 are associated with melanoma tumor progression.

Stimulus-dependent open conformations of the hexameric Panx1 channel. Fig.1 Stimulus-dependent open conformations of the hexameric Panx1 channel. (Dahl, 2018)

Application of PANX1 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Seref-Ferlengez Z., et al. Role of pannexin 1 channels in load-induced skeletal response. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018. PubMed ID: 29952014

    This study demonstrates the existence of a Panx1-dependent mechanosensitive mechanism that not only modulates ATP signaling but also coordinates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is essential for proper skeletal response to mechanical loading.

  2. Boucher J., et al. Pannexin-1 in Human Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Regulates Lymphangiogenesis. Int J Mol Sci. 2018, 19(6). PubMed ID: 29882918

    This article identifies Pannexin-1 as a protein highly expressed in HDLECs. PANX1 is required during in vitro lymphangiogenesis.

  3. Xu X., et al. Probenecid Disrupts a Novel Pannexin 1-Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Interaction and Increases Microtubule Stability. Front Cell Neurosci. 2018, 12: 124. PubMed ID: 29867357

    This article reveals that probenecid disrupts a novel interaction between Panx1 and the microtubule stabilizer - Crmp2, and also increases microtubule stability.

  4. Whyte-Fagundes P., et al. A Potential Compensatory Role of Panx3 in the VNO of a Panx1 Knock Out Mouse Model. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018, 11: 135. PubMed ID: 29780304

    This article discovers a significant up-regulation of Panx3 in mice with a global ablation of Panx1, extending previous reports on the up-regulation of Panx3 in arterial walls and the skin of Panx1 KO mice.

  5. Jankowski J., et al. Epithelial and Endothelial Pannexin1 Channels Mediate AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018, 29: 1887-1899. PubMed ID: 29866797

    This article indicates that Panx1 is involved in the regulation of ATP release from hypoxic cells, and reducing this ATP release may protect kidneys from AKI.

PANX1 Preparation Options

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  1. Dahl G. (2018). The Pannexin1 membrane channel: distinct conformations and functions. FEBS Lett. 592(19): 3201-3209.

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