Introduction of TAAR5
Trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) is a 38 KD protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR5 gene. It belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. It also belongs to the Class A Orphans family which thought to be a pseudogene in man though functional in rodents. In general, the ‘‘olfactory TAARs’’ mTAAR2-9 were exclusively expressed in small subsets of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the OE. And recently, TAARs have been identified as olfactory receptors (ORs) in vertebrates, because recombinantly expressed ‘‘olfactory TAARs’’ respond to volatile amines, amongst others N-methylpiperidine (mTAAR7f), trimethylamine (TMA) (mTAAR5) and isoamylamine (mTAAR3). Studies found that the human TAAR5 can be activated in a concentration-dependent manner by trimethylamine.
|Basic Information of TAAR5|
|Protein Name||Trace amine-associated receptor 5|
|Gene Name||TAAR5, PNR|
|Aliases||TAR-5, Putative neurotransmitter receptor, htaar5|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of TAAR5 Membrane Protein
Human TAAR5 (hTAAR5) is a functional trace amine-associated receptor which acts as an olfactory receptor for tertiary amines. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this TAAR5 include G-protein coupled receptor activity and trimethylamine receptor activity. Besides, TAAR9 is an important paralog of TAAR5. Trimethylamine and N, N-dimethylethylamine are full agonists of hTAAR5, while 3-Iodothyronamine is an inverse agonist of hTAAR5. What’s more, in the tissue specificity, TAAR5 expressed almost exclusively in skeletal muscle and selected areas of the brain, such as amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus. In vertebrates, TAAR5 is expressed in the olfactory epithelium.
Fig.1 Structure of TAAR5 membrane protein.
Application of TAAR5 Membrane Protein in Literature
This article suggests that the human TAAR5 is a target for 3-T1AM, exhibiting inhibitory effects on IP3 formation and MAP kinase signaling pathways. The study also indicates differences between TAAR5 orthologs with respect to their signaling profile.
This article performs a ligand screening using recombinantly expressed human TAAR5 in HANA3A cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. As a result, human TAAR5 can be activated in a concentration-dependent manner via trimethylamine and with less efficacy by dimethylethylamine.
This paper displays that TAAR is expressed only in olfactory epithelial cells and that each TAAR detects a unique set of amine ligands.
This article showed that ligands activating the murine TAAR3, TAAR4 and TAAR5 do not activate intact primate and mammalian orthologs, although they evolve under purifying selection and hence must be functional.
This article reveals that PNR is expressed in skeletal muscle and selected areas of the brain.
TAAR5 Preparation Options
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