Magnesium transporters are the primary transporting proteins of Mg2+ found in the membrane system of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Three classes of Mg2+ transport systems have been identified in prokaryotes: CorA (a funnel-shaped homopentamer with two transmembrane helices per monomer), MgtA/B and MgtE. Magnesium transporters move magnesium across the cell membrane, which is essential for the uptake and balance of magnesium in the organism. And magnesium exerts multiple biological processes, such as regulating mitochondrial function and energy metabolism, neuromuscular function, controlling DNA and protein synthesis. Besides, magnesium also can be regarded as a cofactor of other cationic transporters, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium. Studies have shown that lacking intracellular magnesium results in a lot of clinical abnormalities, such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders.
Here show part of magnesium transporters in humans including Angelman syndrome region protein 1 (NIPA1) and Angelman syndrome region protein 1 (NIPA2). NIPA1 may be involved in the regulation of nervous system development and maintenance. NIPA2 may be associated with the regulation of renal magnesium accumulation.
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