Creative Biolabs is the world-leading service provider focusing on in vitro diagnostic (IVD) antibody discovery. With years of experience, we are dedicated to assisting our customers with the most satisfactory IVD antibody discovery against various biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, including apolipoproteins.

Apolipoproteins are proteins which can bind lipids to form lipoproteins. In the human body, plasma lipoproteins are composed of a nonpolar lipid core, primarily triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters. The outer layer is phospholipids and apolipoproteins. As the only protein component of lipoproteins, apolipoproteins are able to provide the water-soluble characterization of lipoproteins and thus being carried via water-based circulation. In general, human plasma apolipoproteins can be divided into five main types which are A, B, C, D, and E. The specific physical and chemical properties make apolipoproteins associate with various diseases which contain the cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and dyslipidemia. In the past decades, apolipoproteins have been served as the important biomarkers against different disorders.

IVD Antibody Development Services for ApoA, B, E Markers Fig.1 The position of apolipoprotein in lipoprotein structure.

The Functions of Apolipoproteins in Lipid Metabolism

  • Maintaining the structural integrity of lipoproteins
  • Acting as ligands for lipoprotein receptors
  • Serving as cofactors in enzymatic reactions

ApoA1 Marker of Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the disease caused by coronary artery insufficiency and leads to angina or heartache. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) is the protein encoded by the APOA1 gene in human and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Mainly produced in the liver and the small intestine, ApoA1 has the normal plasma concentration levels of 0.8-1.8 g/L in men and 0.8-2.2 g/L in women. As the major component and functional protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), ApoA1 has the ability to activate lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and so that it plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport and atheroprotective functions. The studies show that low concentrations of ApoA1 are predictive of preclinical atherosclerosis and relate to the risk for CAD.

IVD Antibody Development Services for ApoA, B, E Markers Fig.2 The structure of ApoA1.

ApoB Marker of Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the cardiovascular disease caused by persistent ischemia and hypoxia. ApoB is one type of apolipoproteins and 98% of its ingredients in plasma is ApoB-100. ApoB-100 is a 512 kDa protein produced in the liver. In general, the normal plasma concentration levels of ApoB-100 are nearly 0.4-1.3 g/L. As the main component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), ApoB-100 is able to mediate the ligand-receptor uptake of LDL. Moreover, the plasma level of ApoB-100 is able to reflect the number of LDL particles as there is one ApoB-100 in each LDL particle. It has been reported that the apoB-100/apoA1 ratio can be served as a predictor of MI.

IVD Antibody Development Services for ApoA, B, E Markers Fig.3 Schematic representation of ApoB-100 in the low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL).

ApoE Marker of Coronary Heart Disease

ApoE is the protein with the length of 299 amino acids and contains multiple amphipathic α-helices. ApoE is produced by many cell types, including macrophages, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. ApoE, similar to other types of apolipoproteins, has the ability to stabilize and solubilize the lipoproteins during the circulation in the blood. Moreover, ApoE is important for the formation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons. In general, the normal plasma concentration levels of ApoE are nearly 0.02-0.08 g/L. It has been reported that the high levels of ApoE can be associated with the increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

In order to render more precise antibody-based diagnostic tools and assist clinicians in the diagnosis, prognosis, and staging of different diseases and infections, Creative Biolabs provides customized IVD antibody development services to generate high-quality antibodies for diagnostic usage. Besides antibody generation, we also offer antibody conjugation, antibody pairing, and diagnostic immunoassay development services to our clients. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us or directly send us an inquiry.

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