Cannabinoid receptors are a class of cell membrane receptors that belong to the rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. They were named because they have an affinity for the agonist delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), a ligand found in organic extracts from Cannabis sativa. Typical of G protein-coupled receptors, cannabinoid receptors are characterized by seven transmembrane spanning domains. Currently, two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified, CB1 receptor and CB2 receptor. CB1R is encoded by the gene CNR1 and consists of 472 amino acids in humans. CB2R is encoded by the gene CNR2, which consists of 360 amino acid in humans. It shares only 44% sequence homology with CB1R at the protein level. Studies have shown that both CB1R and CB2R are coupled through the Gi/o family of proteins and involved in diverse signal transduction mechanisms, including inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, regulation of calcium and potassium channels (CB1 only), and other signal transduction pathways.
Here, we have described in detail of members of the cannabinoid receptor family, including cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabinoid receptor 2. To learn more information about functions and applications of CB1R and CB2R, please click the links below.
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