Medium-wave-sensitive opsins (OPN1MWs) belong to G-protein coupled receptors family (GPCRs), characterized by seven transmembrane domains, an N-terminal extracellular domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The opsins are components of visual pigments, which are known as light-absorbing molecules to mediate vision and is covalently linked to cis-retinal. The long-wavelength opsin gene and multiple copies of the medium-wavelength opsin gene are tandemly arrayed on the X chromosome and frequently unequal recombination and gene conversion may occur between these sequences. There are two OPN1MWs have been identified, namely OPN1MW and OPN1MW3. OPN1MW is also known as green cone photoreceptor pigment (GCP), and the deficiency of OPN1MW is a cause of partial colorblindness deutan series (CBD), blue cone monochromacy (BCM), cone dystrophy type 5 (COD5), both are X-linked dysfunction syndrome. OPN1MW3 is an important paralog of opsins, but the information about its function is limited.
Here show two members of medium-wave-sensitive opsins, namely OPN1MW and OPN1MW3. They can transmit the signal to the brain through the coupled G protein and phosphorylation cascade, and the process interacts with a series of signal transduction pathways.
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