Phospholipid-transporting ATPase, also known as aminophospholipid-transporting ATPase, is a class of aminophospholipid flippase that transport aminophospholipid from the outer to the inner leaflet of various membranes depending on the energy from ATP hydrolysis. It contributes to maintaining the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids, which is very essential for the many biological processes. Phospholipid translocation plays a key role in the vesicle formation, vesicle trafficking, and lipid-dependent signaling transduction. Moreover, maintenance of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in photoreceptor disk membranes and neuronal axon membranes is associated with the normal visual and auditory function. Besides, phospholipid-transporting ATPase is also involved in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis by transporting phospholipids from the inner leaflet of the canalicular membrane to the outer leaflet.
Here shows part of phospholipid-transporting ATPase in humans including ATP8A2, ATP8B1, ATP11A, ATP11B, and ATP10D. ATP8B1 is located in the small intestine, stomach, pancreas, prostate, liver canalicular, and cholangiocyte. The mutations in ATP8B1 can result in the progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1. ATP8A2 is expressed in the brain, testis, adrenal, and endometrium. The variants in ATP8A2 are associated with the cerebellar atrophy and a syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia and cognitive disabilities. ATP11A is widely expressed in lung and gallbladder. ATP11B is broadly expressed in esophagus and bone marrow. ATP10D is widely expressed in placenta and skin. And mutations in ATP11A, ATP11B, and ATP10D are associated with the progression of tumors.
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