Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) belongs to the family of transient receptor potential ion channels. This subfamily consists of eight different channels, TRPM1-TRPM8. Structurally, TRPM channels have six transmembrane segments (S1-S6), intracellular N- and C-terminals, and pore region that lies between S5 and S6. TRPM channels are involved in calcium and magnesium homeostasis but the relative permeability and mechanisms of the activation of these two cations vary among the TRPM members. TRPM8 has been described as cold receptors, TRPM4 and TRPM5 as calcium-activated nonselective cation channels, TRPM6 and TRPM7 as magnesium-permeable and magnesium-modulated cation channels, TRPM2 as an ADP-ribose-activated channel of macrophages, and TRPM3 as a hypoosmolarity- and sphingosine-activated channel. TRPM3 regulates heat sensation and inflammatory pain. TRPM4 regulates calcium oscillations after T cell activation and prevents cardiac conduction disorders. TRPM5 modulates insulin secretion and sensory transduction in taste cells, while TRPM7 regulates cell adhesion.
TRPM channels have been discovered to be involved in a variety of human diseases, including respiratory diseases, bladder diseases, diabetes, cancer, kidney disorders, and CNS disorders. Their therapeutic potential is being widely investigated. Here, we give an introduction to the following human TRPM channels, focusing on the structure, activation mechanism, functions, and implication in diseases.
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