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GTOnco™ Macrophage Polarization Assay

Macrophages exert multiple functions including modulating the adaptive immune responses and responding to pathogens. Macrophages show specific functions and phenotypes in response to different stimuli. They can display polarized states via their plasticity and different populations of macrophages can be developed in response to different stimuli. The macrophage polarization has been classified as being either M1 (pro-inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) state, which is further divided into M2a, M2b, M2c and M2d subsets. At Creative Biolabs, we offer custom assays to induce different macrophage subsets and characterize their polarization states.

The main polarization states of activated macrophages. Figure 1. The main polarization states of activated macrophages. (Atri, 2018)

Our GTOnco™ assay platform can generate various macrophage subsets by treating isolated bone marrow-derived or peritoneal macrophages with specific stimuli, such as IFNγ (M1), IL-4 (M2a), LPS and IL-1β (M2b) or IL-10 (M2c). In addition, we also provide the verification of each polarized macrophage based on the distinctly produced cytokines or expressed surface markers. The analysis of cytokines expression and surface markers is usually carried out by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Each macrophage polarization state demonstrates a unique cytokine profile and cell surface marker profile, which can be used to characterize the macrophage populations in tissue inflammatory conditions to further understand disease pathogenesis and support the gene therapy-based I-O drugs development.

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With professional services and advanced technology platforms at Creative Biolabs, we are committed to offering the most efficient macrophage polarization assay to our clients to best maximize the success of their projects. Please don’t hesitate to contact us and let us know your specific requirements.


  1. Iqbal, S. and Kumar, A. (2015). Characterization of In vitro Generated Human Polarized Macrophages. J Clin Cell Immunol. 6:6.
  2. Atri, C.; et al. (2018). Role of Human Macrophage Polarization in Inflammation during Infectious Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19(6), p.1801.

For Lab Research Use Only, Not for Human or Animal Therapeutic Use.

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For Lab Research Use Only, Not for Human or Animal Therapeutic Use.

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