Chemokines are a family of low molecular weight proteins that activate and mediate the migration of leukocytes during both homeostasis and inflammation. The CC chemokine family, the largest family of chemokines, consists of at least 28 members (CCL1-28) that signal through 10 known CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-10). These CC chemokine receptors belong to class A of the rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. They are predominantly expressed by T cells and monocyte-macrophages and they induce signal transduction via Gi and occasionally other G proteins. Besides these receptors, there are also a group of atypical CC chemokine receptors that bind CC chemokines without generating a functional response, such as the CCR11.
CC chemokines, together with their receptors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, asthma, COPD), a variety of autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke) and viral infection (e.g., HIV). Consequently, they have attracted much attention, and investigations into their biology have given rise to a number of strategies aimed at producing therapeutic treatments.
Here, we give an introduction to each of these CC chemokine receptors in terms of their structure, signal transduction, functions as well as their possible utility as therapeutic targets in different disease areas.
Membrane proteins have to be extracted from the biological membrane, and then purified, and/or crystallized for structural and functional studies. To achieve this, Creative Biolabs has developed a versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform to help incorporate your targets into classical detergents, or alternative membrane-like environments such as liposomes, nanodiscs, amphipols, styrene-maleic acid copolymer lipid particles (SMALPs), or lipoparticles. Detergent-aided and detergent-free approaches are both available. Moreover, we can provide stably overexpressing cell lines of CC chemokine receptors to facilitate your protein research in the cellular state.
Meanwhile, for downstream applications, our Magic™ membrane protein antibody discovery platform can help to discover antibodies against these membrane protein targets. We also present DNA immunization service for anti-membrane protein antibody development. Please feel free to contact us for more information.