Oncolytic virus refers to viral strains that continuously replicate in tumor cells and lyse the cells to kill malignant cells. Recently, the focus in the OV therapy field has shifted from their direct oncolytic effect to their immune stimulatory effect.
Cancer immunotherapies focus on strengthening the recognition and elimination of cancer cells by the host immune system. Mounting clinical data now conclusively demonstrate the positive correlation between the presence of such antitumor immune responses and favorable patient outcomes for many cancers. Although originally discovered for their oncolytic activities, OVs are now being increasingly recognized for their anticancer immunotherapeutic qualities.
Creative Biolabs has summarized the mechanism of action of oncolytic virus and builds the best oncolytic virus service platform to assist with your research work.
Figure 1 Mechanisms of action of oncolytic viruses destroying tumor cells
Upon infection with an oncolytic virus, tumor cells immediately initiate an antiviral response that consists of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and genotoxic stress, leading to the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the initiation of antiviral cytokine production. ROS and cytokines, specifically type I interferons (IFNs), are released from the infected cancer cells and stimulate immune cells (antigen presenting cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells), thus causing a harsh environment for tumor cells.
Although the mechanisms of action of oncolytic viruses are still incompletely understood, it appears that the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic viruses is determined by a combination of direct tumor cell lysis and indirect activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Creative Biolabs has provided you with more detailed message about inherent and engineered oncolytic viruses. Based on the professional oncolytic virus engineering platform, Creative Biolabs has developed a series of engineered oncolytic viruses to enhance tumor lysis and immune response.
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