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Introduction of Salpingo-Oophoritis

In the female reproductive system, the ovary is an organ where the ovum is produced. The ovum goes down the fallopian tube into the uterus when released. The inflammation of the uterine appendage, particularly on the fallopian tubes is the disease called Salpingo-Oophoritis. It develops when staphylococci, streptococci, colon bacilli, gonococci, tubercle bacilli or other pathogens enter into fallopian tubes and the ovaries. A recent scientific report revealed that the complement component C8G is associated with Salpingo-Oophoritis and the related pathway is lectin-induced complement pathway.


  1. Fever: a febricula, temperature increases to 38-38.5°C
  2. Severe lower abdominal pain: acute process pains in the lower part of a stomach, painful at palpation. Severe pain in the waist
  3. Heavy vaginal bleeding during menstrual cycle
  4. Lower back pain
  5. Malaise
  6. Polyuria (frequent urination)
  7. Vomiting
  8. Perspiration
  9. Causes

Young, sexually active women are more likely to catch Salpingo-Oophoritis. These infectious pathogens invade the fallopian tube and the tubular walls become infiltrated. The fallopian tubes and ovaries coalesce into a single inflammatory formation. The following are the conditions that lead to Salpingo-Oophoritis.

  1. The sexual partner has sexually transmitted disease
  2. Lacking personal hygiene which makes the entrance of the infectious pathogen possible
  3. Infections of the cervix also lead to tubo-ovarian abscess formation.

Risk Factor

  1. Unprotected sexual intercourse
  2. Multiple sexual partners
  3. High-risk sexual behavior
  4. Immunosuppression
  5. Recent instrumentation of genital tract
  6. Gynecologic malignancy (particularly in postmenopausal women)


Oophoritis needs quick treatment to prevent health complications and preserve fertility. The seemingly mild infections can lead to severe damages to the reproductive system. The signs and symptoms are usually invisible. Therefore, the diagnosis of Oophoritis is extremely important.

Salpingo-Oophoritis may be identified by

  1. Knowledge of the patient’s family history, particularly the family members who’s ever caught the disease.
  2. Detailed knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the patient
  3. Pelvic examination
  4. Vaginal discharge test
  5. Pelvic ultrasound - Ultrasound is safe and painless. It produces the images of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
  6. Colpocentesis - a medical procedure conducted by a needle entering the upper part of the vagina. The needle presses the tube and ovaries for extracting the fluid. The fluid is used to diagnosing the infecting pathogen.
  7. Laparoscopic examination - a technique in which insertion of a tiny camera is needed. There is a light at the tip of the camera. It provides a clear view of the pelvic organs when the camera enters the abdominal cavity.

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