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Oncolytic Viruses in Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Treatment

Introduction of Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

Peritoneal cavity cancer is a rare type of cancer that spreads along the peritoneal surfaces to affect the peritoneum. The peritoneum tissues inside the wall of the abdomen are made of the thin layer of epithelial cells that allow organs to move smoothly inside the abdomen and protect the organs in the abdomen. Peritoneal cavity cancer has two forms, one is primary peritoneal cancer that starts in the peritoneum itself, and another is secondary peritoneal cancer that usually develops when existing abdominal cancers such as the appendix, colon, rectal, and pancreatic cancers into the peritoneum. This causes tumors to grow throughout the peritoneum. Cancers that spread to the lining surfaces of the peritoneal could be referred to as peritoneal carcinomatosis.

Symptoms

In its early stages, patients often have no apparent symptoms and do not notice symptoms until the disease is relatively advanced. The early symptoms often occur vague and nonspecific and hard to pinpoint, with abdominal swelling, abdominal pain, indigestion, and urinary frequency. As cancer progresses and a watery fluid (ascites) in the abdominal cavity, other symptoms occur, including nausea or vomiting, complete bowel or urinary blockage, abnormal vaginal bleeding, an abdominal mass, and shortness of breath.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Because the symptoms of peritoneal cancer undetected in the early stage, peritoneal cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage. Many different tests can be used to diagnose a patient with peritoneal carcinomatosis. By pelvic examination, tumor nodules in the abdomen or fluid (ascites) may sometimes be felt, but small tumors and microscopic cells sneak by undetected. Using blood tests and imaging studies such as CT scan, ultrasound, or MRI of the abdomen and pelvis can be used to check the tumor markers or to assess the extent of disease in the abdomen.

Based on specific cancer types and stages, some strategies can be used in the treatment of peritoneal cavity cancer to prevent cancer from spreading such as the surgery followed by chemotherapy. This technique, which combines surgery with chemotherapy which can shrink the tumor before surgery or kill any remaining cancerous cells after surgery, has a great promising treatment of peritoneal cavity cancers. In some cases, other clinical trials include targeted therapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, and immunotherapy can be used to treat or prevent peritoneal cavity cancer without harming healthy cells.

Stage of primary peritoneal cancer. Fig.1 Stage of primary peritoneal cancer. (Height, 2019)

Oncolytic Viruses in Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Treatment

Currently, engineered oncolytic viruses are emerging as attractive anticancer therapeutics with efficacy and safety in clinical trials due to their unique abilities. Creative Biolabs is one of the well-recognized experts who are professionals in oncolytic virus therapy development aided by our advanced OncoVirapy™ platform. With over a decade of extensive experience, our scientists are confident in accomplishing numerous challenging oncolytic virus construction and oncolytic virus engineering projects for our worldwide customers.

References

  1. Height, T. Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment-Health Professional Information [NCI].
  2. Stanziale, S. F.; et al. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 mutant expressing green fluorescent protein can detect and treat peritoneal cancer. Human gene therapy. 2004, 15(6):609-18.
  3. Lauer, U. M.; et al. Phase I study of oncolytic vaccinia virus GL-ONC1 in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Clinical Cancer Research. 2018, 24(18):4388-98.
  4. Bennett, J. J.; et al. Comparison of safety, delivery, and efficacy of two oncolytic herpes viruses (G207 and NV1020) for peritoneal cancer. Cancer gene therapy. 2002, 9(11):935.

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