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Oncolytic Viruses in Neuroblastoma Treatment

Introduction of Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is one of the most common extracranial solid tumors found in children and the most frequent malignancy in infancy. Neuroblastoma remains accounting for an estimated 8-10% of all childhood cancers. Neuroblastoma is a tumor originating from the sympathetic nervous system, and the primary location may be commonly developing along with paraspinal ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system or adrenal glands. To most frequently, its high risk often affects distant sites, such as lymph nodes, bone, bone marrow, liver, and subcutaneous tissue, which often results in treatment-resistant and a disproportionally high mortality rate. Most patients are asymptomatic with tumors or present with a palpable abdominal mass or abdominal distension. Some of the patients can present with generalized bone pain, massive hepatomegaly, and abdominal compartment syndrome leading to respiratory compromise.

The diagnosis of suspicion of neuroblastoma in children can be evaluated by cross-sectional imaging (CT scan or MRI). It can assess the extent of the primary tumor and evaluate for regional or distant spread. Neuroblastoma may be a stem cell disease that has striking tumor cell heterogeneity and the ability to relapse. A small subset of neuroblastoma cases spontaneously regresses or is cured with surgical management alone without cytotoxic therapies. Conversely, metastatic neuroblastoma tends to present with life-threatening tumors that have refractory and case a dismal prognosis.

The treatment for low or intermediate-risk metastatic neuroblastoma is often achieved remission by intensive multimodal chemotherapy, radiopharmaceutical treatment, and resection of the primary tumor. Some children with high-risk neuroblastoma also benefit from high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation. Despite intensive multimodal treatment, most neuroblastoma progress relentlessly and poor prognosis, and relapse after transplantation because of the resistance to conventional therapy. Given the high incidence of resistance to conventional therapies and the high mortality, new therapeutic strategies are still a substantial need and a current clinical challenge, in which, oncolytic virotherapy has shown promise in treating neuroblastoma.

Clinical presentations of neuroblastoma. Fig.1 Clinical presentations of neuroblastoma. (Maris, 2010)

Oncolytic Viruses in Neuroblastoma Treatment

Due to their ability to replicate in vivo, oncolytic viruses are attractive anticancer therapeutics that have been shown efficacy and safety in clinical trials. Creative Biolabs has established a comprehensive well-established OncoVirapy™ platform for the development of the oncolytic virus. Based on the most advanced techniques and years of experience in the oncolytic virus therapy field, Creative Biolabs provides custom oncolytic virus construction services and oncolytic virotherapy development for neuroblastoma to achieve our customers' specific goals of clinical research.

References

  1. Maris, J. M. Recent advances in neuroblastoma. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010, 362(23):2202-11.
  2. Li, H.; et al. Virotherapy with a Type 2 Herpes Simplex Virus-Derived Oncolytic Virus Induces Potent Antitumor Immunity against Neuroblastoma. Clinical cancer research. 2007, 13(1):316-22.
  3. Toyoda, H.; et al. Oncolytic treatment and cure of neuroblastoma by a novel attenuated poliovirus in a novel poliovirus-susceptible animal model. Cancer research. 2007, 67(6):2857-64.
  4. Pesonen, S.; et al. Oncolytic adenovirus treatment of a patient with refractory neuroblastoma. Acta oncologica. 2010, 49(1):120-2.

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