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PD-1

Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279 (cluster of differentiation 279), is a cell surface receptor that plays an important role in down-regulating the immune system and promoting self tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity. PD-1 is an immune checkpoint and guards against autoimmunity through a dual mechanism of promoting apoptosis (programmed cell death) in antigen specific T-cells in lymph nodes while simultaneously reducing apoptosis in regulatory T cells (anti-inflammatory, suppressive T cells). PD-L1, the ligand for PD1, is highly expressed in several cancers and hence the role of PD1 in cancer immune evasion is well established. Monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 that boost the immune system are being developed for the treatment of cancer. Many tumor cells express PD-L1, an immunosuppressive PD-1 ligand; inhibition of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 can enhance T-cell responses in vitro and mediate preclinical antitumor activity. This is known as immune checkpoint blockade. A number of cancer immunotherapy agents that target the PD-1 receptor have been developed. One such anti-PD-1 antibody drug, nivolumab, (Opdivo - Bristol Myers Squibb), produced complete or partial responses in non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal-cell cancer, in a clinical trial with a total of 296 patients

Associated Disease
  • B-cell malignancies
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

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