Carcinoma

Carcinoma is a kind of cancer that derived from epithelial cells. It begins from the cells of the skin or the tissue lining the entire surfaces of the body, such as the liver or the kidneys. Carcinoma occurs when the DNA of a cell is damaged or changed and the cell begins to grow out of control. They become abnormal and subsequentlly invade other tissues. Carcinomas happen more often in adults whereas rare among children before their adolescence.

Carcinomas mainly include renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, cervical carcinoma, adenocarcinomas, lung malignancy, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Depending on the various tissues carcinomas originating from, the sign and symptom might vary. However, the most common symptom is a lump under the skin, other symtoms may include skin discolorations, pains, etc.

Creative Biolabs provides CAR modified T cells or natural killer (NK) cells targeting a variety of carcinoma-specific antigens. If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Carcinoma can be divided into different groups:

Renal cell carcinoma TOP


Overview

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC, also called hypernephroma, Grawitz tumor, renal adenocarcinoma) is a kidney cancer that arise from the lining of the renal tubule, a portion of the very small tubes in the kidney for filtering the blood and producing the urine. RCC accounts for approximately 90-95% of all kidney cancer cases, which is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.

Sign and symptom

RCC may keep its clinically mysterious by hiding the symptoms, therefore most patients have developed advanced disease when it is diagnosed. Only 10-15% of patients present the classic triad of flank pain on the side of the body between hip and ribs, hematuria which has red blood cells present in the urine, and flank mass. Other signs and symptoms include weight loss and/or loss of appetite, recurrent fevers, hypertension due to the secretion of renin by the tumor, hypercalcemia, night sweats, malaise and a varicocele which usually occurs at left side caused by the obstruction of the testicular vein.

Melanoma TOP


Overview

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is the most serious type of skin cancer. It develops from the melanin-containing cells (melanocytes) — the pigment cells that give the skin color. Melanomas especially occur in the skin but also rarely occur in the mouth, the internal organ such as intestines, or the eye. Melanoma is caused mainly by intense, occasional ultraviolet light (UV) radiation (normally from sunlight and tanning devices). The risk of melanoma can also be increased by a number of rare genetic diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum.

Sign and symptom

Early signs of melanoma lesion include asymmetry (two halves are different), irregular borders (,uneven or uncertain), color (tan, brown or black, or sometimes white, red, or blue), diameter larger than 6 mm (0.24 in, around the size of a pencil eraser), evolving over time (different from the rest in shape, size or color), elevated above the skin surface, firm to the touch, and growing mole on the skin. The early stage symptoms include itch, bleeding and painful feeling. Based on the type differences of melanomas, the signs and symptoms may vary.

Cervical carcinoma TOP


Overview

Cervical carcinoma or cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women round the world. Cervical carcinoma arises from the cervix when abnormal cells growing out of control. Most cervical carcinoma is caused by a kind of virus infection which is named human papillomavirus (HPV). Several other factors such as smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age, and having too much sexual partners can also increase the risk of developing cervical cancer, however, these are the less important reasons.

Sign and symptom

The early cervical carcinoma may not show any symptoms. However, vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding (bleeding after sex, or after menopause), or a vaginal mass (rarely) may indicate the development of cervical carcinoma. Moreover, moderate pain during sexual intercourse, pain in the lower belly or pelvis and abnormal vaginal discharge are also the symptoms of cervical cancer. In advanced cervical carcinoma, symptoms may include: loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pain in the pelvis, pain in the back and leg, swollen legs, heavy vaginal bleeding and bone fractures. Metastases of cancer may be shown in the abdomen, the lungs, or elsewhere in an advanced stage of cervical carcinoma.

Associated Antigen Target

Adenocarcinomas TOP


Overview

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer which occurs in several places of the body. It originates in glandular (secretory) cells that produce substances such as mucus, digestive juices, or other fluids, which can be found in several tissues throughout the body. Thus, adenocarcinomas can be diagnosed in many different organs, including the lungs, colon, pancreas, cervix and esophagus. It is the most common cancer form of breast, pancreas, lung, prostate, and colon.

Sign and symptom

Symptoms mentioned in various sources for adenocarcinoma include bleeding, pain, discomfort and lump. Other signs and symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the locations of the lesions in body and the development condition. For lung adenocarcinoma, the symptom can be a persistent cough and/or coughing up blood in progressed condition. For colorectal adenocarcinoma, the most common symptoms include blood in the stool, diarrhea, inexplicable weight loss, constipation, or abnormal bowel habits, vomiting, lack of appetite and cramping.

Associated Antigen Target

Lung malignancy TOP


Overview

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by growing cells out of control in the lung. In the advanced stage, its growth can spread into surrounding tissue or other places of the body. The main three types of lung cancer are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and lung carcinoid tumor. Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke is the principal cause of lung cancer. Other factors such as genetic factors, exposure to radon gas or asbestos, and second-hand smoke can also result in lung cancer.

Sign and symptom

The most common symptoms of lung cancer include coughing (coughing up blood), unexplainable weight loss, fever, clubbing of the fingernails, breathing difficulties, bone pain, superior vena cava obstruction, difficulty in swallowing and chest pains. However, several symptoms of lung cancer such as poor appetite, weight loss, fever and fatigue are not specific. In many patients, the cancer has already metastasized out of the original location by the time when they show symptoms and obtain medical attention.

Colorectal cancer TOP


Overview

Colorectal cancer, also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer, or bowel cancer, is a type of cancer which develops in the colon or large bowel. Colorectal cancer generally starts from a polyp growth, which may grow on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Subsequently, the uncontrolled growing cells can invade or spread to elsewhere in the body thus result in metastasized cancer. Several factors may increase the risk of colorectal cancer such as inherited genetic disorders, living style, older age, smoking, alcohol, colon polyps, exposure to radiation or other factors. Colorectal cancer can be diagnosed by barium enema or by colonoscopy combined with biopsy confirmation of a colon tissue sample.

Sign and symptom

The classic signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer may include blood in stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, a change in stool caliber (thickness) and always feeling tired. Other signs and symptoms may vary depending on the location of bowel tumor, and the parts of the body where tumor metastasize to.

Prostate cancer TOP


Overview

Prostate cancer, also known as prostate carcinoma, is a kind of cancer that occurs in the prostate which is a gland in the male reproductive system. It is one of the most common forms of cancer in men except skin cancer. Most prostate cancers usually grow very slowly. The uncontrolled growing cells in advanced prostate cancer may metastasize from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.

Sign and symptom

Prostate cancer in early stage usually has no obvious symptom. While sometimes, several symptoms may exist, including frequent urination, more often urination at night, difficult to start and maintaining urinating, hematuresis, painful urination, painful ejaculation and hard to achieve or maintain an erection. The symptoms in advanced prostate cancer are pain in the spine (vertebrae), pelvis, ribs, the proximal part of femur, and leg weakness, urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence.

Associated Antigen Target

Breast cancer TOP


Overview

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops from breast tissue. It is the most common invasive cancer in women worldwide. Risk factors can be divided into two classes: modifiable risk factors including consumption of alcoholic beverages, lack of physical exercise or ionizing radiation and fixed risk factors including female sex and older age. The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking mammograms, ultrasound and biopsy.

Sign and symptom

The primary symptom of breast cancer is normally an area of thickened tissue or a lump in the breast. Other signs or symptoms may include a change in breast shape or size, pain in the breast, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or pitting or redness of the skin and swelling in the armpit. In advanced breast cancer, bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, breath difficulties, or yellow skin may also show up.

Pancreatic cancer TOP


Overview

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. 1-2% of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Signs, symptoms and treatments

Signs and symptoms of the most common form of pancreatic cancer may include yellow skin, abdominal or back pain, unexplained weight loss, light-colored stools, dark urine and loss of appetite. There are usually no symptoms in the disease's early stages, and symptoms that are specific enough to suggest pancreatic cancer typically do not develop until the disease has reached an advanced stage. By the time of diagnosis, pancreatic cancer has often spread to other parts of the body. Cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer (how much it has spread), age, health status, and additional personal characteristics. There is no single treatment for cancer, and pancreatic cancer is usually only curable when found in its earliest stages. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the most common treatment types. Treatments seek to remove the cancer and/or relieve painful symptoms that the cancer is causing.

Associated Antigen Target

CONTACT US

USA
45-1 Ramsey Road, Shirley, NY 11967, USA
Tel: 1-631-871-5806
Fax: 1-631-207-8356
Email:

Europe
Ringstrasse 4, 64401 Gross-Bieberau, Germany
Tel: 44-207-048-3343

Distributors

To view the contact information for a specific location, select the desired country:

Australia
australia

FOLLOW US ON