Human papillomavirus is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family, of which over 150 types are known. More than 40 types are transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anus and genitals. HPV is typically spread by sustained direct skin-to-skin contact with vaginal and anal sex being the most common methods.E7 plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. E7 protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor from RB1, with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes. Interferes with host histone deacetylation mediated by HDAC1 and HDAC2, leading to transcription activation. E7 plays also a role in the inhibition of both antiviral and antiproliferative functions of host inteferon alpha.
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