Extracellular circulating Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via the binding to several surface receptors such as CD26, CXCR4, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) or LDLR. Neurons are rarely infected, but they internalize Tat via their LDLR. Through its interaction with nuclear HATs, Tat is potentially able to control the acetylation-dependent cellular gene expression. Modulates the expression of many cellular genes involved in cell survival, proliferation or in coding for cytokines or cytokine receptors. Tat plays a role in T-cell and neurons apoptosis. Tat induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis probably contribute to neuroAIDS.
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