Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that infects human immune system cells, which is high genetic variability. HIV can be divided into two major types, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV type 2(HIV-2). HIV infection in most countries is caused by HIV-1. HIV-1 diameter of about 120 nm was icosahedron. HIV-1 selectively violates cells with CD4 molecules, mainly T4 lymphocytes, mononuclear macrophages, dendritic cells and so on. Cell surface CD4 molecules are HIV-1 receptors. HIV-1 causes cell damage through the HIV envelope protein gp120 and CD4 on the cell membrane after binding by gp41 to penetrate into the susceptible cells. HIV-1 directly causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
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