CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), also called B lymphocyte antigen CD19, is a protein that in human is encoded by CD19 gene.The human CD19 antigen is a 95 kd transmembrane glycoprotein. It is found on the surface of B cell, function as B cell co-receptor that assemble with B cell antigen receptor in order to decrease the shreshold for antigen receptor dependent stimulation. CD19 usually expressed on follicular dendritic cells and B cells. As a hallmark of B cell, CD19 have highly conserved expression on most B cell tumors, though its not strong evidence show if CD19 contributes to B cell carcinogenesis directly. It is expressed in most acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) and B cell lymphomas. In fact, the majority of B cell malignancies express CD19 at normal to high levels (80% of ALL, 88% of B cell lymphomas and 100% of B cell leukemias). For these reason, CD19 also a potential target for lymphoma therapy. Sevral monoclonal antibody and other antibody based immune therapy such as CAR-T technique are target at CD19. It is forseeable that CD19 mAb and molecularly engineered chimeric antigen receptor will be widely studied for therapies of lymphoma, leukemia and autoimmune disorders.
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