SLC10A4 belongs to the sodium bile acid cotransporter family whose members are the Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, SLC10A1) and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, SLC10A2). SLC10A4 is a novel member of the SLC10 carrier family with the highest phylogenetic relationship to NTCP. This protein is encoded by SLC10A4 gene in human, with 437 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46.5 kDa. SLC10A4 shares amino identity with other members of the sodium bile acid symporter family (SLC10A2, SLC10A1, SLC10A3, and SLC10A5) and is conserved amongst various mammalian species.
|Basic Information of SLC10A4|
|Protein Name||Sodium/bile acid cotransporter 4|
|Aliases||Na(+)/bile acid cotransporter 4, Solute carrier family 10 member 4|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
SLC10A4 belongs to the sodium-bile acid cotransporter family (Slc10) but does not show plasma membrane transport activity of bile acids and related molecules. It has been reported that SLC10A4 is found in synaptic vesicles of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system, suggesting a transport function for any kind of neurotransmitter. Furthermore, SLC10A4 has been shown as a vesicular monoamine and cholinergic transporter, which functions a role in the homeostasis and neuromodulation of dopamine in the body. The deficiency of SLC10A4 has associated with a decreased dopamine vesicular uptake. In view of the role and discovery of SLC10A4 in dopaminergic signaling, it shows a novel mechanism for neuromodulation and represents an unexplored target for the treatment of neurological and mental disorders.
Fig.1 SLC10A4 is a vesicular aminergic associated transporter modulating monoamine homeostasis. (Larhammar, 2015)
This study indicates that SLC10A4 does not seem to represent a typical neurotransmitter transporter such as DAT, SERT, CHT1 or VMAT2.
In this article, authors suggest that SLC10A4 has no ability to transport taurocholate. However, this protein may be involved in the transportation of other endogenous organic anions due to its wide tissue distribution.
These results show that SLC10A4 may have low activity but becomes activated by proteases, including thrombin, following cleavage. This also demonstrates that SLC10A4 seems to be a protease-activated transporter and transports bile acids.
This research shows that depletion of SLC10A4 is present in the brain with increased severity of Alzheimer's disease-related neuronal degeneration.
These results demonstrate that SLC10A4 is a vesicular monoaminergic and cholinergic associated transporter that is important for dopamine homeostasis and neuromodulation in vivo. The discovery of SLC10A4 and its role in dopaminergic signaling reveals a novel mechanism for neuromodulation and represents an unexplored target for the treatment of neurological and mental disorders.
Membrane protein studies have got great progress over the past few years. Based on our versatile Magic™ membrane protein production platform, we can provide a series of membrane protein preparation services in reconstitution forms as well as multiple active formats for worldwide customers. Besides, aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-SLC10A4 antibody development services.
During the past years, Creative Biolabs has successfully generated many functional membrane proteins for our global customers. It’s our pleasure to boost the development of our clients’ programs with our one-stop, custom-oriented service. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us.