Introduction of HCN4
Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, which in human is encoded by HCN4 gene, is a multi-pass membrane protein that belongs to the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channels (HCN) family. It functions as a voltage-gated cation channel with very slow activation and inactivation exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. HCN4 channel is primarily expressed in the pacemaker region of the mammalian heart.
|Basic Information of HCN4|
|Protein Name||Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of HCN4 Membrane Protein
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are a unique group of voltage-gated ion channels in which the threshold voltage for the opening of the channel is regulated by the metabolic state of the cell (levels of cyclic nucleotides like cAMP). The channels open upon hyperpolarized membrane voltages (negative), generating a large current which is a mix of sodium and potassium ion fluxes. Primarily, HCN4 channels have been studied in adult hearts as pacemaker channels. But, recent studies have demonstrated their presence in human embryonic cells and implicated them in cardiac patterning. HCN4 channels show slow kinetics of activation and inactivation and contribute to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) that regulate the rhythm of the heartbeat. They show an essential role for the cardiac pacemaking process. HCN4 channels may also responsible for the native pacemaker currents in neurons (Ih), and may mediate responses to sour stimuli. Mutations in HCN4 gene have shown to be linked to sick sinus syndrome 2, which is also known as atrial fibrillation with bradyarrhythmia or familial sinus bradycardia.
Fig.1 Structure of potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4.
Application of HCN4 Membrane Protein in Literature
Data of this article identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels in correct left-right patterning.
This article reveals that HCN4 channels attenuate the vagal response of the SAN, and thus stabilize the spontaneous firing of the SAN.
This article indicates that HCN4 serves to coordinate morphogenetic control factors that provide positional information during heart morphogenesis in Xenopus.
Findings of this article provide an updated review of the mutation-induced changes in the expression and kinetics of HCN4 channels.
Authors of this article generate HCN4-overexpressing mESC-CMs expressing genes required for impulse conduction, showing rapid spontaneous beating, responding to an If inhibitor and beta-adrenergic receptor agonist.
HCN4 Preparation Options
Our efficient Magic™ membrane protein production platform is flexible to offer different options, which can meet the specific requirements of your research. To obtain the soluble and functional target protein, we present robust reconstitution forms as well as multiple active formats for membrane proteins. Aided by our versatile Magic™ anti-membrane protein antibody discovery platform, we also provide customized anti-HCN4 antibody development services.
Creative Biolabs has worked all out in the field of membrane protein preparation to support membrane protein studies using our Magic™ Membrane Platform. Our scientists are able to deliver a full range of standard and custom professional membrane protein preparation services. Please feel free to contact us for more details.