F2RL1 Membrane Protein Introduction

Introduction of F2RL1

F2RL1, also referred as PAR2 (protease activated receptor 2) or GPR11 (G-protein coupled receptor 11), is a protein product as a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family, as well as the protease-activated receptor family, encoded by the F2RL1 gene. It is noteworthy that the protein can be activated by trypsin, but not by thrombin. It has been demonstrated that activation of the receptor is associated with stimulation of vascular smooth muscle relaxation, dilation of blood vessels, increase of blood flow, and a lowering of blood pressure. In addition, this protein plays an important role in both inflammatory response and innate and adaptive immunity.

Basic Information ofF2RL1
Protein Name Proteinase-activated receptor 2
Gene Name F2RL1
Aliases PAR2, GPR11
Organism Homo sapiens (Human)
UniProt ID P55085
Transmembrane Times 7
Length (aa) 397

Function of F2RL1 Membrane Protein

PAR2 is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular amino terminus. Activation of the receptor contributes to stimulating vascular smooth muscle relaxation, dilate blood vessels, increase blood flow, and lower blood pressure. PAR2 takes part in the recruitment of leukocytes to the sites of inflammation and serves as the major PAR receptor. Additionally, these receptors can be activated by exogenous proteases, such as house dust mite protein Der P9.

F2RL1 Membrane Protein Introduction

Application of F2RL1 Membrane Protein in Literature

  1. Hara T., et al. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Plays a Critical Role in Vascular Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice. Circulation. 2018. PubMed ID: 29700120

    This article reveals that PAR-2 signaling activates macrophages and promotes vascular inflammation, increasing atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. This signaling pathway may also participate in atherogenesis in humans.

  2. Lü Q., et al. Research progress on protease-activated receptor 2 in pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017, 31(12): 1517-1522. PubMed ID: 29806398

    This article shows that PAR-2 has been involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA).

  3. Sun L., et al. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 promotes tumor cell proliferation and metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2018, 24(10): 1120-1133. PubMed ID: 29563756

    This article suggests that PAR2 plays an important role in the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, targeting PAR2 may present a favorable target for treatment of this malignancy.

  4. Lee K H., et al. Cigarette smoke extract enhances neutrophil elastase-induced IL-8 production via proteinase-activated receptor-2 upregulation in human bronchial epithelial cells. Exp Mol Med. 2018, 50(7): 79. PubMed ID: 29980681

    This article suggests that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) upregulates PAR2 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, thereby enhancing the inflammatory response to NE.

F2RL1 Preparation Options

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