Introduction of GPRC5A
Retinoic acid-induced protein 3 (GPRC5A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRC5A gene. GPRC5A is one of the few genes known in the literature that are post-transcriptionally controlled by miRNAs through their 5'UTR. GPRC5A is a member of the type 3 G protein-coupling receptor family, which is characterized by the signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to GPRC5A include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPRC5D. GPRC5A is an orphan receptor that may be involved in modulating differentiation and maintaining homeostasis of epithelial cells. This retinoic acid-inducible GPCR provides evidence for possible interactions between retinoid and G-protein signaling pathways.
|Basic Information of GPRC5A|
|Protein Name||G-protein coupled family C group 5 member A|
|Aliases||PEIG-1, RAIG-1, RAI3, RAIG1|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
Function of GPRC5A Membrane Protein
GPRC5A plays a key role in embryonic development and epithelial cell differentiation. GPRC5A is dysregulated in many human diseases such as cancer. Several diseases are associated with GPRC5A such as lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colorectal cancer. Among its related pathways are GPCRs, Class C metabotropic glutamate, pheromone, and neuroscience. Moreover, GPRC5A plays an important role in adipogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Inhibition of GPRC5A in hASCs reduced the expression of β-catenin, and lithium chloride which can activate the β-catenin pathway abolished the effect of RAI3 knockdown on the adipogenesis.
Fig.1 A schematic model for the gemcitabine treatment enhancing GPRC5A expression with the help of HuR in a pancreatic cancer cell. (Zhou, 2016)
Application of GPRC5A Membrane Protein in Literature
Authors in this group find that inhibition of RAI3 in hASCs reduced the expression of β-catenin, which suggests that RAI3 plays an important role in adipogenesis of hASCs.
The article reveals an unexpected oncogenic role of GPRC5A in colorectal cancer. The result suggests that there are complicated functional and molecular mechanism differences of this gene in distinct tissues.
The article reports that the inhibition of GPRC5a leads to decreased cell growth, proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell lines through a STAT3 modulated pathway. RAI3 is an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer survival.
The article demonstrates that GPRC5A is a tumor suppressor in EGFR-expressing breast cancer cells. GPRC5A exerts its tumor-suppressive function by inhibiting EGFR and its downstream pathway.
This article reports that GPRC5A is a potential oncogene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. With the help from HuR, GPRC5A is upregulated by gemcitabine.
GPRC5A Preparation Options
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