Solute carrier family 41 member 1 (SLC41A1) is a transmembrane protein that in human is encoded by SLC41A1 gene. SLC41A1 belongs to the solute carrier family 41 (SLC41) and is homologous to the prokaryotic Mg2+ transfer protein MgtE. SLC41A1 protein is expressed in heart and testis with the highest level, slightly less expressed in skeletal muscles, prostate, thyroid, and adrenal gland, and expressed in the hematopoietic tissues bones marrow, thymus, lymph node, and spleen at the weakest level.
|Basic Information of SLC41A1|
|Protein Name||Solute carrier family 41 member 1|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
|Transmembrane Times||10 (There is controversy about the structure of SLC41A1, some groups suggest a 10 transmembrane domain structure, while others suppose 11 transmembrane domains with an extracellular carboxyl (C)-terminus)|
Intracellular magnesium, especially the ionized fraction (Mg2+), plays an essential role in enzyme activation, making the ion crucial for various metabolic processes. Mg2+ also act as a key co-factor in several other physiological functions, such as the secretion of hormones, synthesis of biomacromolecules, and modulation of ion channel activity. Therefore, it is no wonder that abnormal Mg2+ homeostasis is relevant to a variety of disease conditions, including diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and essential hypertension. SLC41A1 protein has been described as a eukaryotic magnesium transporter with the ability to form protein complexes, which is in response to magnesium balance. Previous studies have demonstrated that it likely mediates the magnesium efflux as a Na+/Mg2+ exchanger and mediates a slow temperature-sensitive transport of Mg2+. Above all, SLC41A1 protein is an Mg2+ carrier playing a vital role in transmembrane Mg2+ transport and in cellular Mg2+ homeostasis, by extrapolation.
Fig.1 Models of membrane topology of SLC41A1. (Fleig, 2013)
The results of this study show that SLC41A1 expression status and [Mg2+]extracellular modulate the complex physiological fingerprint of the cell and influence the activity of kinases involved in anti-apoptotic and, thus, pro-survival events in cells.
The results of this study show that SLC41A1 regulates the interaction of magnesium and MSCs during osteogenic differentiation, and tissue-specific SLC41A1 could be a potential treatment target for bone mass loss.
This study attempts to examine the gene expression of SLC41A1, a Na+/Mg2+ exchanger, during exercise. And the result shows that expression levels of SLC41A1 are significantly downregulated following exercise in both control and Mg groups.
Authors of this article hypothesize that enhanced Mg2+-efflux conducted by SLC41A1 variant p.A350V may lead to the long-term, in chronic intracellular Mg2+-deficiency, a condition that is found in various brain regions of PD patients.
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