Immunological Checkpoint Therapy

Creative Biolabs, which has been serving customers for more than a decade in the field of vaccine development, has grown and developed its vaccine development service system. Equipped with vaccine development experts and first-class facilities and professionals from around the world, we can now develop vaccines of various diseases and types at the same time. In the field of cancer vaccines, we have established a variety of efficient platforms to meet your research needs.

Cancer Immunotherapy

The basic idea of tumor immunotherapy is to activate the immune system to eliminate malignant tumors like against microbial infections. The initial practice was that Dr. William B. Coley injected microbes into cancer patients to treat tumors. With an in-depth understanding of the immune system, various methods of immunotherapy for cancer have been developed, including monoclonal antibodies, recombinant cytokines, and cell therapy. Immunological checkpoint therapy, as an emerging treatment for cancer, has significantly better safety for refractory cancers over other therapies, and long-term inhibition of tumor has been achieved in a small number of patients. These results give cancer patients hope for more effective control or cure of cancer. There are reasons to believe that in the near future, treatments based on immunological checkpoint therapy will bring about tremendous changes in cancer treatment.

Immunological Checkpoint Therapy

Immune checkpoint therapy originated from the increasing in-depth understanding of the immune system, that is, the tumor immune response is similar to the immune response against bacteria and viruses, which means that the two have the same basic mechanism of action, and scientists are gradually finding that immune system is controlled by the immune checkpoints, which maintain the balance of the immune system. Since tumors are mutated self-cells, the recognition and response of the immune system against them are more complicated than induced by bacterial and viral infections. This complexity reduces the ability and effectiveness of the immune system to recognize tumor antigens. So enhancing and prolonging the recognition and killing function of T cells on tumor cells by preventing the inhibition of these physiological T cell immunological checkpoints is the basic principle of immunological checkpoint therapy.

Immunological checkpoint blockade therapy has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple types of cancer and may be approved for more indications in the near future. CTLA4 and PD-1/PD-L1 are currently the most successful T cell costimulatory mechanisms and checkpoint blocking mechanisms.

Molecular mechanisms of CTLA4 and PD-1 attenuation of T-cell activation.

Fig.1 Molecular mechanisms of CTLA4 and PD-1 attenuation of T-cell activation. (Wei SC and Duffy CR, 2018)

  • CTLA4-mediated Negative Co-stimulation

CTLA4 is constitutively expressed in regulatory T cells but is up-regulated only in conventional T cells after activation - a phenomenon that is particularly pronounced in cancer. When combined with CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, it acts as a "close" switch.

  • PD-1 Mediated Attenuation of T cell Activity

The primary biological function of PD-1 is to maintain peripheral tolerance and to maintain T cell responses within the desired physiological range. Activation of T cells is regulated by interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2 to attenuate local T cell responses and minimize tissue damage. Compared to CTLA4-mediated regulation, PD-1 directly regulates TCR signaling to attenuate T cell activity.

Services for Immunological Checkpoint Therapy


Creative Biolabs has extensive experience in vaccine development and has built up a comprehensive assemblage of talents, facilities and technology platforms. Tracking the most advanced scientific progress, we have researched and launched a number of cancer vaccine development platforms, and immunological checkpoint therapy is one of them. If you have any needs in this regard, please contact us!

Reference

  1. Wei SC, Duffy CR; (2018). “Fundamental Mechanisms of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy.” Cancer Discov. 8(9): 1069-1086.

Our services are for research use only. We do not provide services directly to individuals.

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