Tumor-APC Fusion Technology

A novel development in cancer vaccines is the use of tumor-APC fusion technology. Fusions of tumor cells and antigen presenting cells have been investigated in animal models and clinical trials as candidate cancer vaccines. Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of cancer vaccine development. We provide tumor-APC fusion technology platforms to assist you with the development of cancer vaccine.

The Concept of Tumor-APC Fusion Cell Vaccines

Fusion of tumor cells to professional APCs in vitro can produce fusion hybrid cells expressing the relevant TAAs and have the ability to process these antigens and present to the immune system to induce efficient tumor specific immunity. Tumor-APC Fusion Cell is, therefore, an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy because they express a variety of tumor antigens, process them through the MHC class I and class II pathways and present the processed antigens to the host immune system in the context of effective T-cell co-stimulation.

  • Tumor-Dendritic Cell Fusion Vaccines. Tumor-Dendritic cell hybrids have been the subject of animal studies and human clinical trials. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells and have been widely used as APC partners in fusion cell vaccines.
  • Non-DC fusion vaccines. Although autologous or allogeneic DCs are used as APC fusion partners in most studies, non-DC APCs have also been used for the generation of fusion cell vaccines.

DC-tumor fusion cells obtained by fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells express MHC class I and II molecules, co-stimulatory factors, and multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The DC-tumor fusion cells are able to process multiple TAA-derived peptides from tumor cells and load them on MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in the cell surface expression of the peptide-MHC class I complexes for presentation to CD8+ T cells. DC-tumor fusion cells can also synthesize MHC class II-restricted peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum, which are transported to the cytoplasm where MHC class II-peptide complexes are assembled with multiple tumor-derived peptides. These complexes are presented to CD4+ T cells, which are important for the efficient induction of antigen-specific polyclonal cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.

Fig.1 Fusion cells generated with dendritic cells (DCs) and whole tumor cells.

Tumor-APC Fusion Cell Vaccines for Cancer

Most studies of Tumor-APC fusion cells are based on their potential use as therapeutic vaccines for active immunotherapy in patients with cancer. In this case, fully autologous and semi-autonomous methods have been tested. In fact, in some animal studies, fusion vaccines expressing allogeneic MHC are found to induce stronger protective immunity than syngeneic vaccines.

Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Tumor-APC cell fusion vaccines in protecting against tumor cells, eradicating established tumors, and preventing tumor development in tumor-susceptible animals. Although there are still many problems with the optimization of approach for the use of humans, phase I / II clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and tolerability of this approach. It is necessary to further study this method to solve these problems associated with Tumor-APC hybrid cells as cancer vaccines. In addition to their potential as therapeutic cancer vaccines, Tumor-APC fusion cells may have a role as tumor antigen-specific CTL inducers in vitro and used in adoptive T-cell cancer immunotherapy.

Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of vaccine development and has focused on the cancer vaccines for years. We have experienced experts and advanced platforms that are able to provide excellent services. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

Reference

  1. Takakura, K. (2015). “Dendritic-tumor fusion cells in cancer immunotherapy.” Discov Med 19(104), 169-174.


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