Neuroendocrine Tumors

Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of cancer vaccine development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we are therefore confident in offering the best vaccine development services for different types of neuroendocrine tumors including Neuroblastoma, Small Cell Lung Cancer, Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, Merkel Cell (Trabecular) Cancer, Carcinoid, Cervical Neuroendocrine Tumors, Anal Cancer and Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors. We guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia Neuroendocrine tumor is a cancer arising from endocrine (hormonal) and neuronal cells. Many are benign, while others are vicious. Neuroendocrine cells are present not only in the endocrine glands throughout the body, producing hormones, but also found in all body tissues. Neuroendocrine tumors occur most often in the gut, where they are commonly referred to carcinoid tumors. They are also found in the lungs, pancreas and other parts of the body. Although there are many kinds of NETs, these tumors are considered as a group of tissues because of their similar characteristics, similar looks, special secretory granules, and their frequent production of biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. CT scan, MRI, ultrasound, and endoscopy are commonly used as diagnostic tools. Several issues help determine the appropriate treatment for neuroendocrine tumors, including their location, invasiveness, hormone secretion and metastasis. Treatment may be aimed at curing the disease or relieving the symptoms.

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer during the first year of life, accounting for more than 20% of malignancies. Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor arising from neural-crest progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, typically in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia. The clinical entity called neuroblastoma is heterogeneous in its seed (tumor), but increasingly apparent also in its soil (immune system). In adults, neuroblastoma characteristically has an indolent clinical behavior, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are more abundant than in neuroblastomas arising in adolescents or preadolescents, suggesting an age-dependent immune response that could modulate the tempo of tumor progression.

Small Cell Lung Cancer

Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are derived from Kulchitsky cells in the bronchial mucosa. These neoplasms fall into one of four categories: typical carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell-lung cancer (SCLC). SCLC represents approximately 20% of all primary lung cancers, tends to be more aggressive than non-SCLC and requires distinct therapeutic intervention, often without surgical resection as an option due to the presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a cancer of the C-cells of the thyroid gland. These cells produce calcitonin, which is a good marker for diagnosis and monitoring. This neuroendocrine cancer is often associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN). MEN is an autosomal dominant disorder that is associated with tumors present in at least two endocrine glands. The syndrome has been subdivided into three types, each of which is associated with cancers in a different spectrum of organs and unique gene mutations. MEN type 1, 2 and 4 (MEN type 3 was renamed MEN type 2b) are caused by mutations of the MEN 1 tumor suppressor gene, RET proto-oncogene, and CDKN1B gene, respectively. MTC comprises 5–10% of thyroid cancers. Surgery can often be curative if the disease is nonmetastatic. However, once tumor cells have metastasized, patient survival is very poor.

Merkel Cell (Trabecular) Cancer

Merkel cell cancer (MCC) is a rare form of skin cancer. Research has shown Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV) is a potential etiological agent, based on higher seroprevalence in MCC patients and a greater incidence of MCC in immunosuppressed HIV and transplant patients. As such, vaccines developed against this virus may be effective in the prophylactic setting. Results demonstrate that Ab responses capable of neutralizing the virus occur following natural infection.

Carcinoid

Carcinoid is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the neuroendocrine system. Carcinoids typically fall under the classification of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. They are usually found in the GI tract and arise from enterochromaffin-like cells. However, carcinoids can occur in other anatomical locations.

Cervical Neuroendocrine Tumors

Small-cell cervical cancer and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix are rare. However, like other cervical cancers, there is evidence that HPV can be an etiological agent. As such, the HPV vaccine can help prevent this type of neuroendocrine tumor.

Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is quite rare. Up to 93% of these cancers are associated with HPV and this includes small-cell/neuroendocrine carcinomas. Although being used to prevent cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine could, and in theory should protect against anal cancer.

Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

Pancreatic endocrine tumors originate either from the islets of Langerhans or endocrine pancreatic precursor cells and represent only 1–5% of all pancreatic cancers. It has been discovered that MAGE-1 is expressed by a subset of these tumors. As such, patients with this type of cancer may benefit from clinical melanoma vaccine trials targeting this antigen.

Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of vaccine development and has focused on the cancer vaccines for years. We have experts who are able to help you with the vaccine development for different types of pediatric cancer. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

Reference

  1. Bridle, BW. (2011). “Neuroendocrine cancer vaccines in clinical trials.” Expert Rev Vaccines 10(6), 811-823.

Our services are for research use only. We do not provide services directly to individuals.

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