Viral Vector Vaccine Design

Viral vectors are promising tools for the development of novel vaccines and vaccination approaches. Viral vector-based vaccines present advantages over traditional vaccines in that they can enhance a broad range of immunogenicity without an adjuvant and induce a robust cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to eliminate virus-infected cells. During the last several decades, viral vectors have been extensively studied in animal models, and many types of viruses have been developed as vaccine vectors and entered clinical trials. The most promising method involves "prime-boost" strategies with other types of vaccines such as recombinant antigens or DNA vaccines. Viral vector is a promising system for the development of effective and safe vaccines for many important diseases. Creative Biolabs is professional in a wide range of vaccine technologies including Viral Vector Vaccine. Our scientists are confident in offering the best services and products upon request.

Viral Vector Vaccine Design

Advantages

  • High efficiency gene transduction
  • Highly specific delivery of genes to target cells
  • Induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
  • Improved efficacy and safety
  • Reduced administration dose
  • Enable large-scale manufacturing
  • Potential targets ranging from cancers to a vast number of infectious diseases

Disadvantages

  • Risk of integrate into the host genome and lead to other diseases
  • The presence of pre-existing immunity against the vector caused by previous exposure to the virus and the production of neutralizing antibodies can reduce vaccine efficacy
Viral Vector Vaccine Design

Major Viral Vectors

The development of viral vectors requires a high level of biosecurity to be recognized by the public. Therefore, low pathogenic viruses are often selected. When using viral vectors, it is important to assess the potential effects by understanding epidemiological and virological characteristics. The specific property of the vector is determined by the virus and each vector has s advantages and disadvantages (Table 1). The vaccinia virus and adenovirus are the most widely used vectors because they can induce a strong immune response against the expressed foreign antigens.

Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of major viral vectors [1]

Virus Advantages Disadvantages
Retrovirus Long-term gene expression Generation of replication-competent virus potential for tumorigenesis
Infects dividing cells only
Lentivirus Long-term gene expression
Infects non-dividing and dividing cells
Generation of replication-competent virus potential for tumorigenesis
Vaccinia virus High immunogenicity
Safety: used as a smallpox vaccine
High titer production
Pre-existing immunity
Adenovirus High immunogenicity
Safety: used in many clinic trials
High titer production
Pre-existing immunity
Adeno-associated virus Long-term gene expression
Non-pathogenic virus
Low titer production
Cytomegalovirus Induces a unique CTL response
Protects against SIV infection in an animal model
Pre-existing immunity
Risk of pathogenesis in specific individuals
Sendai virus High immunogenicity Pre-existing immunity

In summary, several viral vectors have been successfully used for vaccine production and gene therapy. These vaccines can potentially induce a strong immune response in tissues and cells and achieve targeted delivery. Early-phase trials have shown that they are well tolerated in humans. Although the additional challenges lie ahead, the prospect of viral vector vaccine looks promising.

Reference

  1. Ura T Okuda K; et al. Developments in Viral Vector-Based Vaccines. Vaccines (Basel). 2014, 2(3): 624-641.

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