Oil Adjuvant

Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of vaccine adjuvants development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we are therefore confident in offering the best services for vaccine adjuvants for use in vaccine development and guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

Oil Vaccine Adjuvant - Creative Biolabs

Oil Adjuvant

Oil adjuvants are also called emulsion adjuvants (either oil-in-water or water-in-oil). Oil adjuvants were first reported at 1916 by Le moinic and Pinoy. Jules Freund developed a vaccine adjuvant which was a mineral oil-based water-in-oil emulsion called Freund’s adjuvant to enhance this concept. The Freund’s adjuvant is one of the most commonly used adjuvants in vaccine research and used for the initial injections as a water-in-oil emulsion. Because of the noticeable effects of emulsions as carriers of vaccine protein and of immune-stimulatory molecules, they have a wide and diverse potential in vaccine development.

The Type of Oil Adjuvants

Besides Freund’s adjuvant, there are two leading squalene based oil adjuvants which were used in vaccine production. One is the MF59 which is the first O/W adjuvant approved for human use influenza vaccines and under clinical evaluation, such as HIV and CMV. Another is the AS03 which is a squalene-based immunologic adjuvant for use in various vaccine products. Freund’s adjuvant is known as the most potent adjuvant, usually for use in the veterinary vaccines development. Antigens in W/O emulsions would stimulate high and long-lasting immune responses which can be attributed to the slow release of antigen. An important parameter is the emulsion particle size which affects the pharmaceutical performance of O/W emulsion adjuvants. There are two manufacturing processes which are described to yield such fine and long-term stable emulsion adjuvants, including high pressure homogenization and a phase inversion temperature method.

Immunostimulation by Oil Adjuvants

Oil adjuvants can trigger depot generation and induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) responses. IFA induces a predominantly Th2 biased response with some Th1 cellular response. Oil adjuvants allow the reduction of the vaccine dose or the antigen concentration and can also enhance cellular immune response. Many studies have shown that water in oil emulsions induce higher IgG2a antibody levels than other type of emulsions. The squalene-based adjuvant MF59 is a potent stimulator of both cellular (Th1) and humoral (Th2) immune responses. However, the precise mode of action of oil-based adjuvants is still unclear. Formulation in emulsions can protect also the antigen from a rapid degradation by enzymes and could modify the electric charge of the antigen becoming more immunogenic. They create an inflammation and stimulate not only the recruitment of antigen presenting cells such as macrophages, but also lymphocytes. They are also able to favour the uptake of antigens by APC and this can be explained by the interactions between the surfactant and the cellular membrane. Lymphocyte trapping is another mechanism of action of oil adjuvants. They stimulate the accumulation of lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes and alter recirculation hence facilitating cell association. Finally, specific cytokines can be induced according to the type of emulsion selected.

Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of vaccine adjuvants development and has focused on the various oil-based adjuvants for many years. We have experts who are able to help you with the development of the oil adjuvants for use in vaccines. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

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Reference

  1. J. Aucouturier. (2001). “Adjuvants designed for veterinary and human vaccines.” Vaccine 19, 2666-2670.

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