Vaccines for Multiple Sclerosis

Creative Biolabs is a leading global pharmaceutical company which focuses on the field of vaccine development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we have successfully accomplished many projects in autoimmune disease vaccine development services for multiple sclerosis. We guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

Background of Multiple sclerosis

Vaccines for Multiple sclerosis– Creative Biolabs

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by perivascular inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. It is the most common demyelinating disease seen in high-income countries and has a heterogeneous prevalence worldwide. MS mainly affects young adults between 20 and 40 years of age and leads to significant disability. Although the etiology of MS remains unknown, there is increasing evidence supporting the hypothesis that autoimmunity plays a major role in the development of the disease.

The Risk Factors of Multiple sclerosis

The pathogenesis of MS is complex and heterogeneous in nature, and both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to disease risk (see Fig 2). The family clustering of the disease is determined by genetic factors. However, the lack of accuracy and bias inherent in estimating the risk of familial recurrence limits what can be inferred on comparing risks between relatives. MS is associated with a genetic variant of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The MS environmental risk factors include 44 factors, and only 3 show strong correlations with MS: viral infection, infectious mononucleosis, and smoking. It is worth noting that the interaction between genetic and environmental factors contribute more to disease phenotypes than individual factors.

The potential autoantigens and risk factors (both genetic and environmental) of multiple sclerosis. MBP: myelin basic protein; PLP: proteolipid protein; MOG: myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.

Fig 2 The potential autoantigens and risk factors (both genetic and environmental) of multiple sclerosis. MBP: myelin basic protein; PLP: proteolipid protein; MOG: myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. (Zhang, 2018)

Vaccines for Multiple sclerosis

  • T-cell vaccines

CD4+ T cells play an essential role in the pathogenesis of MS by targeting components of myelin sheaths such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). T cell vaccination, a procedure by which MS patients are immunized with attenuated, autologous T cell clones specific for myelin antigens, has been shown to prevent disease initiation and to induce remission in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, by enhancing the existing peripheral regulatory network. Because these myelin antigens are considered to be potential autoantigens of MS, T cell vaccines incorporating a broad panel of antimyelin reactivities may have therapeutic effects against MS.

  • DNA vaccines

DNA vaccination is a strategy of immunization based on the injection of genes encoding for target proteins. Vaccination with a DNA construct or a viral vector encoding myelin autoantigen such as MBP, PLP, and MOG or their immunodominant peptides can induce immune tolerance in EAE. For example, BHT-3009, a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length of human MBP, not only safe and well tolerated but also induced a decrease in IFN-γ levels and myelin-specific autoantibody production in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Thus, DNA vaccines represent a promising therapeutic approach for MS which also seem to overcome the safety concerns raised by other currently tested therapeutic strategies.

  • T cell receptor (TCR) peptide vaccines

In several autoimmune animal models, pathogenic T cells use a strikingly limited number of variable region elements (V regions) to form a TCR specific for defined epitopes on the target autoantigen. T cell receptor (TCR) peptide vaccine is developed that was based on the synthetic peptides derived from CDR2 regions of different Vβ5, Vβ6, and another Vβ gene which are expressed by MBP specific T cells in MS patients. The therapeutic benefit of TCR peptide therapy is well established in the rat and mouse models of EAE in which there are restricted TCR Vɑ and Vβ gene usage patterns in MBP-specific T cells.

  • Peptide vaccines

The precise knowledge of epitope determinants in myelin antigens and contact sites involved in MHC peptide-TCR interactions make it possible to mimic the naturally processed epitope to serve as tolerogens in autoimmune diseases. Altered peptide ligands (APLs) are analogs of immunogenic epitopes that are modified by introducing one or more amino acids substitutions while retaining the MHC binding property. APLs derived from both MBP (MBP 87-99, MBP83-99) and PLP (PLP139-151) peptide are able to inhibit the development of the disease. Therefore, peptide vaccines have enormous therapeutic potential in MS.

Our Services for Multiple sclerosis Vaccine

With a variety of mature and comprehensive platforms and technologies for the evaluation and improvement of vaccine development, our platform is dedicated to providing the best solutions and protocols customized to vaccines development for MS. Our service has the following characteristics:

  • Help develop vaccines with the appropriate immune response
  • Provide specialized vaccine development designs and solutions based on customer needs
  • Evaluation and data analysis of candidate vaccine immune effects

Creative Biolabs is pleased to share our cutting-edge technology and extensive expertise in the field of vaccine development. We can provide high-quality customized services for autoimmune disease vaccine by adjusting protocols to meet even the most specific requirements. If you want to know more services, please contact us as soon as possible.

Reference

  1. Zhang N and Nandakumar K S. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Vaccine. 2018, 36(23): 3208-3220.

Our services are for research use only. We do not provide services directly to individuals.

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