Mineral Salt Adjuvant

Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of vaccine adjuvants development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we are therefore confident in offering the best services for vaccine adjuvants for use in vaccine development and guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

Vaccine Adjuvant - Creative Biolabs

Mineral Salt Adjuvant

Mineral salts such as insoluble aluminum salts and calcium phosphate have been used as adjuvants in vaccine formulations, Aluminum salt-based adjuvants have been used in immunization programs for decades to help induce early, high-titer, and long-lasting protective immunity. Aluminum compounds, including aluminum oxyhydroxide, aluminum hydroxyphosphate, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, and alum-precipitated vaccines are currently the most commonly used adjuvants in human and veterinary vaccines.

Aluminum Salt-Based Adjuvants

Aluminum salt-based adjuvants are often simply referred to as “alum”, which are vaccine ingredients that have been used safely in vaccines for more than eight decades. Aluminum adjuvants are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in human vaccines. Small amounts of aluminum are added to help the body build higher immunogenicity than the antigen alone in the vaccine. Aluminum is widespread in nature, which is one of the most common metals found in nature and is present in air, food, and water. The mechanism of function for aluminum adjuvants is now under debate, yet studies have shown that the activation of dendritic cells leading to enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

Immunostimulation by Aluminum Salt-Based Adjuvants

Aluminum salt-based adjuvants primarily strengthen antibody production and have little effect on the cell-mediated arm of the immune response. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the complex mechanisms that appear to underlie the immunostimulatory effect of aluminum adjuvants. Immunization with aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induces antibody-mediated protection directed by CD4 T cells. CD4 T cells differentiate into effector cells with specific functions based on molecular signals provided by dendritic cells and the local microenvironment in which the differentiation takes place. The effector CD4 T cells were initially divided into Th1 and Th2 cells. Th1 cells are characterized by the secretion of IFN-γ and expression of the transcription factor T-bet, and Th2 cells by the secretion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and the expression of GATA-3. Antigens adsorb to aluminum adjuvants via hydrophobic and van der Waals forces, via electrostatic attraction and by ligand exchange.

Effect of aluminum adjuvants on dendritic cells

Fig. 2 Effect of aluminum adjuvants on dendritic cells.

Aluminum Adjuvants for Use in Vaccines

Although aluminum salts have been used for decades in vaccine development, their methods of preparation remain traditional, in which antigens are simply adsorbed onto adjuvants. Aluminum salt-based adjuvants is the most used in current human vaccine against infectious diseases, including vaccines to enhance the immune response to purified viral and bacterial antigens such as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human papilloma virus capsid proteins and inactivated bacterial toxins.

Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of vaccine adjuvant development and has focused on the mineral salt-based adjuvants for many years. We have experts who are able to help you with the development of the mineral salt adjuvants for use in vaccines. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

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Reference

  1. Harm HogenEsch. (2013). “Mechanism of immunopotentiation and safety of aluminum adjuvants.” Front Immuno 3, 1-8.

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