Acyl-coA acyltransferase-related enzyme 2 required for viability is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARV1 gene. ARV1 is ubiquitously expressed in higher eukaryotes, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. It is a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is conserved between plants, yeast, and mammals. ARV1 protein contains a conserved N-terminal zinc ribbon motif known as the ‘Arv1 homology domain' (AHD) which is followed by several transmembrane regions. The predicted and experimentally defined topology of the yeast Arv1p indicates the AHD is cytosolic.
|Basic Information of ARV1|
|Organism||Homo sapiens (Human)|
ARV1 has been revealed to function a role as a putative lipid transporter. It was first characterized in yeast ARV1-mutants, showing changes in intracellular cholesterol distribution and abnormal phospholipid, sphingolipid, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-metabolism. ARV1 knockout mice displayed a striking metabolic phenotype including major reductions in white adipose tissue mass, improved glucose tolerance, and increased energy expenditure. These findings suggest an important role for ARV1 in fatty acid homeostasis. Besides, ARV1 is also involved in the regulation of body composition and energy expenditure in mice. Antisense oligonucleotide targeting ARV1 transcripts causes accumulation of cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum at the expense of cholesterol levels in the plasma membrane. Germline deletion of ARV1 in mice leads to a lean phenotype with increased energy expenditure and improved glucose tolerance.
Fig.1 Experimentally determined membrane topology of ARV1.
This article hypothesized that ARV1 may be a key regulator for initiating events associated with the progression of diseases associated with MetS and NAFLD.
This study suggested lacking ARV1 as a cause of autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy.
Authors identified a novel function for Arv1 in regulation of cell division through promotion of the contractile actomyosin ring, which was independent of its lipid transporter activity.
This investigation indicated that Arv1 function in GPI biosynthesis may be conserved in all eukaryotes, from yeast to humans.
Authors indicated ARV1 as an important regulator in mammalian lipid metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis.
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