Sodium/potassium transporting ATPase (Na+/K+ ATPase), also known as sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump), is a plasma membrane transport protein found in many cells. Na+/K+ ATPase is a heterodimeric protein that consists of a catalytic α-subunit and a regulatory β-subunit. It transports three sodium ions out and two potassium into the cell across the membrane depending on the energy released from per ATP decomposition. Na+/K+ ATPase is very important for regulating fluid volume, and transmission of nerve impulses through mediating resting membrane potential and action membrane potential in the nervous system. It also functions as a signal transducer to regulate MAPK pathway, ROS, as well as intracellular calcium. The dysfunction of Na+/K+ ATPase can lead to abnormal biological conditions. For example, blockage of Na+/K+ ATPase in the cerebellum of a live mouse can lead to ataxia and dystonia.
Here are part of Na+/K+ ATPase including ATP1B1, ATP1B2, and ATP1B3. ATP1B1, encoded by ATP1B1 gene, is involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity. ATP1B2, encoded by ATP1B2 gene, regulates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes as well as promotes neurite outgrowth. However, the exact function of the ATP1B3 is not clear.
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