Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), which belong to the amine group of class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have long been established as a paradigm for the study of GPCR structure and function, as well as for the development of non-orthosteric receptor ligands. Studies have shown that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family consists of five distinct subtypes (M1-M5) that differ mainly in expression pattern, G protein-specificity, and molecular structure. It has been reported that all five subtypes are widely expressed in mammalian organisms and mediate a variety of physiological functions, including acting as the main end-receptor stimulated by acetylcholine released from postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system. Besides their physiological and pathophysiological roles in parasympathetic-innervated organ systems, mAChRs have also been implicated in the control of inflammation, cell growth, and cell proliferation.
In order to introduce subtypes of mAChRs more clearly, we have listed all members of the MAChRs family following as below. To learn more detailed information, please click the links below.
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