Vaccines for Virus from Picornaviridae Family

Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of viral vaccine development. With our strong expertise and advanced platform in vaccine field, we are therefore confident in offering the best vaccine development services for different types of diseases caused by virus from Picornaviridae family, including poliovirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus. We guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

Picornaviridae is one of the largest viral families that affect both humans and animals. The family is comprised of small RNA viruses with a diameter of 27-30 nm, non-enveloped particles with icosahedral symmetry containing a single (plus)-stranded RNA genome. Characteristic features of all members of the family are naked with an icosahedral capsid which has four unique proteins: VP1, 2, 3, and 4, and its polyprotein processing by virus-encoded cysteine proteinase. Members of Picornaviridae family can cause a range of significant and very different diseases such as paralysis, encephalomyocarditis, and hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

Structure diagram of Picornaviridae.

Fig. 1 Structure diagram of Picornaviridae

The viral RNA is infectious and replication takes place in the cytoplasm, so they must encode a polymerase that is made from the sense strand of the infecting virus. The replication of picornavirus occurs on the cytoplasmic surface of membrane vesicles to which the RNA polymerase binds. The first step of virus infection is attachment to its receptor, followed by uncoating and release of its RNA genome. The resulting polyprotein is cleaved nascently in cis, releasing discrete structural and nonstructural proteins. Then, the genome is replicated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D which is required for genome replication and mRNA synthesis. A negative-strand intermediate template which is used for positive strand replication is created later. At last, newly synthesized, positive-stranded RNA is packaged into the assembled capsid to form provirion and released upon maturation by cell lysis.

Summary of picornavirus life cycle.

Fig. 2 Summary of picornavirus life cycle.

Poliovirus Vaccines

Poliovirus is the causative agent of a disease of the central nervous system, called poliomyelitis, commonly known as polio. The virus is an enterovirus and infection occurs via the fecal-oral route which indicates once individual ingests the virus and viral replication occurs in the alimentary tract. Vaccination is available to enable individuals to resist the poliovirus. We have two types of vaccines against poliovirus which are inactivated poliovirus given by injection (IPV) and weakened poliovirus given by mouth (OPV). After immunization with polio vaccine, antibodies are present in the tonsils and gastrointestinal tract and are able to block poliovirus replication, IgG and IgM antibodies can prevent the spread of the virus to motor neurons of the central nervous system.

Encephalomyocarditis Virus Vaccines

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped virus that is a member of the genus cardiovirus in the family Picornaviridae. EMCV usually causes acute focal myocarditis and affects the nervous, reproductive, respiratory and circulatory system of pigs. The infection pathways mainly are ingestion of EMCV-contaminated food, water, and diseased carcasses. On account of the broad infection, piglets suffer from myocarditis and encephalitis and sudden death due to myocardial failure is common which brings severe economic losses on pig production.

We provide an inactivated EMCV vaccine produced from swine isolates which protects swine from diseases caused by EMCV. The vaccine is a safe option that would provide high antigenicity and immunogenicity in swine. Moreover, other novel types of EMCV vaccines are under development in order to provide more options in precaution of the virus. These are DNA and combination vaccines, both types can induce better immune response and resistance against EMCV.

Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Vaccines

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is a picornavirus of the genus aphthovirus that causes foot-and-mouth disease. The disease that causes vesicles in the mouth and feet of cloven-hoofed animals is highly infectious and a major plague of animal farming. The evolution of disease is strongly influenced by high mutation rates and a quasispecies dynamics. FMD is characterized by fever and vesicles in the mouth and on the muzzle, teats, and feet and is spread through direct contact or aerosolized virus from infected animals. In a susceptible population, morbidity may be up to 100% with rare fatalities except in young animals.

Several FMD vaccines are available or under development, including inactivated FMD vaccines, DNA vaccine, and chimeric vaccine. The killed virus vaccines are pure, safe, and effective. DNA candidate vaccine used the infectious cDNA technology, attenuated and antigenically marked viruses can open a new window to virulent strains for FMD vaccine manufacturing. Moreover, the chimeric O1K foot-and-mouth disease virus with SAT2 outer capsid induced high neutralizing-antibody titers could be a potential FMD vaccine candidate.

Creative Biolabs can offer high-quality customized services by adjusting protocols to meet even the most specific requirements. We are pleased to share our cutting-edge technology and extensive expertise in the field of viral vaccine development and have focused on the virus of Picornaviridae family for years. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.

Reference

  1. Travis Lim. (2008). “Antisense DNA and RNA agents against picornaviruses.” Front. Biosci. 5, 4707-4725.

Our services are for research use only. We do not provide services directly to individuals.

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