Vaccines for Virus from Poxviridae Family

Creative Biolabs has been committed to vaccine development for decades and now has a dedicated R&D team that is equipped with advanced technology and has successfully established a variety of sophisticated platforms. We have the ability to provide you with the most reliable and cost-effective services to remove your difficulties in the development of the vaccines preventing diseases caused by Poxviridae family. Our services and technologies cover every member of the Poxviridae family, including variola, vaccinia, buffalopox, contagalo virus, Aracatuba, rabbitpox, cowpox, camelpox, ectromelia, monkeypox, capripoxvirus, sheeppox, and goatpox viruses.


Poxviridae is the largest and most complex virus family infecting mammals. Different animals have different strains of pathogenic viruses. The genetic material of the virus is double-stranded DNA, and the virus is about 140-260 nm in diameter. The virions of Poxviridae are generally enveloped and the intracellular mature virions (IMV) containing different envelopes are also infectious. The viruses shape like bricks or present oval forms. Poxviridae can usually be divided into eight genera, and Orthopoxvirus, as well as Parapoxvirus, are important pathogens in humans. Extensive cross-reactions between the sera of viruses in different genus are observed, but there is only one common antigen among the same genus, which is generally considered to be a kind of ribonucleoprotein complex.

Vaccines that prevent Poxviridae infections include traditional inactivated/attenuated vaccines and recombinant protein vaccines. The current live virus vaccines for capripox, parapox, camelpox, and fowlpox are effective in inducing long-acting immune responses in the body.

Smallpox Vaccine

The structure of smallpox virus

Variola virus is a large, brick-like virus with a single-stranded double-helix DNA genome. There are two types of variola virus: Variola major and Variola minor. Both types of viruses can elicit the immune response in the host while counteract it the other virus induced.

The smallpox vaccine used today contains live vaccinia virus. The immunity stimulated by vaccinia virus can effectively resist infection of other poxviruses such as monkeypox, vaccinia, and smallpox. Past cases have shown that the vaccine could protect 95% of populations those were vaccinated, and single injection is valid for 3-5 years. By 1986, routine smallpox immunizations were stopped in all countries. Now, only people working in high-risk laboratories are required to receive regular injections.

Vaccinia Virus Vaccine

Vaccinia virus is a large and complicated enveloped virus belonging to the Poxviridae family. Its genome is linear double-stranded DNA, about 190 kb long, and the size of the virion is about 360 × 270 × 250 nm.

In the past two centuries, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to provide cross-protection against smallpox virus until the end of the disease in the late 1970s. Since then, ongoing research on VACV has produced many evolutionary vaccines with improved safety. Attenuation is achieved by several strategies, including selecting alternative surrogates for serial passage, deleting specific genes, and genetically engineering genes that encode the immune regulatory proteins in the virus. Highly attenuated third or fourth generation VACV vaccines are currently being considered to prevent the recurrence of smallpox.

Buffalopox Virus Vaccine

Buffalopox is a severe infectious disease caused by buffalopox virus. The virus could not only infect buffalo but also infect cattle and human. The mortality caused by the virus is up to 80%. Vaccination is a flexible method to protect susceptible populations against buffalopox virus. At present, no licensed vaccines for buffalopox are available. Efforts on the development of buffalopox vaccines are mainly in inactivating or attenuating buffalopox virus.

Cantagalo Virus Vaccine

Contagalo virus was found in Brazil, which mainly infects cattle and milkers. And the disease caused by contagalo virus is often moderate. Vaccines for contagalo virus are commonly based on vaccinia virus.

Aracatuba Virus Vaccine

Aracatuba virus belongs to genus Orthopoxvirus, and people are susceptible populations to this virus. There is limited research about Aracatuba virus. Primary strategies to prevent infection by this virus is preparing killed or attenuated vaccines based on vaccinia virus.

Rabbitpox Virus Vaccine

Rabbitpox is caused by the agent of rabbitpox virus which specifically infect rabbits. Human is not vulnerable to this disease. At present, vaccines for rabbitpox are mainly based on vaccinia virus.

Electron micrograph of three cowpox virus particles

Cowpox Virus Vaccine

Cowpox virus could transmit between animals and humans. The virus resembles variola virus a lot but not that toxic. Currently, inactivated or attenuated vaccinia virus are prepared for prevention of cowpox.

Camelpox Virus Vaccine

Camelpox is a disease prevalent in camel populations which is caused by camelpox virus. The disease has a huge impact on the productivity of camel and could lead to economic losses. Vaccines for camelpox are mostly made form kinds of strains of camelpox virus.

Ectromelia Virus Vaccine

Ectromelia virus causes mousepox in mice with a high mortality. Among several strains of Ectromelia virus, Moscow strain is most virulent. Like other poxvirus, vaccines for Ectromelia virus are also based on vaccinia virus. Some subunit vaccines are also being studied recently.

Monkeypox Virus Vaccine

Monkeypox virus which causes monkeypox similar to smallpox but rather moderate is distributed in rainforests in west Africa. DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines are both under research to prevent monkeypox.

Capripoxvirus Vaccine

Capripoxvirus is a genus that belongs to the family Poxviridae. There are three members in the genus including goatpox virus, sheeppox virus and lumpy skin disease virus. The identity of genomes of these three viruses is as high as 96%. Vaccines for Capripoxvirus could induce long-lasting effects mainly due to their trait of single serotype. Currently, goatpox virus vaccine, sheeppox virus vaccine, and lumpy skin disease virus vaccine are all being studied.

Myxoma Virus Vaccine

Myxoma virus belongs to Leporipoxvirus genus in Poxviridae family and leads to myxomatosis in rabbits. Most hare and rabbit are vulnerable to this virus and mortality of myxomatosis is quite high. Some certain proteins of myxoma virus have strong immune-suppressing effects, so this characteristic makes the virus widely studied. Inactivated and plasmid-based subunit vaccines have been proved to be not sufficiently protective. Nowadays, focuses for myxoma virus vaccine are mainly on live virus.

Parapoxvirus Vaccine

Parapoxvirus is a genus of family Poxviridae. Members in this genus are oval with large dsDNA genomes and they distinguish from other poxviruses due to their exclusive spiral coat. Viruses in genus Parapoxvirus share no cross-immunity with other poxviruses, Parapoxvirus mainly infect vertebrates including humans and other mammals. Orf virus, ecthyma virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus are major members in this genus. Notably, orf virus vaccine, ecthyma virus vaccine are now studied for prevention to infections caused by these viruses.

Poxviridae is an enormous family that consists of a number of virus, most of which are pathogenic to humans and other animals. Creative Biolabs has been focusing on the poxvirus vaccine for more than a decade. After years of research and development, we have a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the poxvirus family and established a full-range service system of viral vaccines for different members of the family. We are able to design and optimize various types of vaccines for a specific poxvirus and find the optimal solution to your difficulties in vaccine development.

Our services are for research use only. We do not provide services directly to individuals.

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