β-glucan as Immunomodulating Agent

Beta-glucans were identified almost 40 years ago as potent immunomodulators that stimulated both innate and adaptive immunity. The extensive experience and expertise of our scientists enable Creative Biolabs to provide innate immune stimulators related development services, including β-glucan.

β-glucan

Beta-glucan, one of the well-studied Dectin-1 ligands, is the most abundant cell wall component of fungi and yeast. It is also found in bacteria and plants but not in animals. All β-glucans are glucose polymers joined together by a 1→3 linear β-glycosidic chain core, and their lengths and branched structures are different from each other. It has been suggested that the higher degree of structural complexity is related to more effective immunomodulation and anticancer effects. The β-glucan is recognized by the C-type lectin receptor (CLR), Dectin-1. The recognition of β-glucan by Dectin-1 activates the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-NF-κB axis to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vitro studies have shown that β-glucan binds to the lectin domain within complement receptor type 3 (CR3).

β-glucan is one of the key components of the fungal cell wall

Fig.1 β-glucan is one of the key components of the fungal cell wall. (Chan GC. 2009)

β-glucans as Immunomodulating Agent

β-glucan is an effective immunomodulator and has an effect on both innate and adaptive immunity. The ability of the innate immune system to rapidly identify and respond to invading pathogens is critical to controlling infection. Dectin-1 is a type II transmembrane protein receptor that binds to beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glucan and initiates and regulates innate immune responses. Due to the absence of β-glucan in human cells, Dectin-1 can elicit effective immune responses (including phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory factors) and eliminate infectious agents, by recognizing the β-glucan found in the bacterial or fungal cell wall.

β-glucan and Cancer Immunity

Beta-glucan has been shown to have broad anti-infective and anti-tumor activity. In addition to activating the Dectin-1 signaling pathway, β-glucan can also improve the anti-tumor immune response by activating the complement system and recruiting tumor-killing granulocytes. The main immunopharmacological effects are related to the activation of neutrophils, macrophages and NK cells. Large molecular weight and granular glucan appear to be able to directly activate leukocytes, stimulating their phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity, including reactive oxygen intermediates, as well as stimulating proinflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines production. Upon exposure to soluble beta-glucan, a condition that triggers leukocytes is generated, enhancing their response to particles or soluble activators.

Creative Biolabs is specialized in assisting clients with every stage of the vaccine development services, including adjuvant optimization. As an innovative and truly premier drug discovery and development research partner, Creative Biolabs is committed to providing the best quality services and high level of specialized support.

Reference

  1. Chan GC, et al. The effects of β-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. J Hematol Oncol. 2009, 2: 25.

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