TF, Tn and sTn Vaccines

Creative Biolabs is a world leader in the field of cancer vaccine development. With our extensive experience and advanced platform, we are therefore confident in offering the best development services for TF, Tn, and sTn based cancer vaccines. We guarantee the finest results for our customers all over the world.

TF, Tn and sTn Antigens

Mucins are major cell surface antigens in breast cancers and a variety of other epithelial cancers. They are primarily large extracellular molecules made up of multiple copies of serine and threonine rich tandem repeats. Though mucins (including carbohydrate and peptide epitopes) are also expressed on some normal tissues they have proved to be excellent targets for anti-cancer attack for two reasons:

  • Expression on normal tissues is largely restricted to the ductal border of secretory cells, a site largely inaccessible to the immune system. Cancer cells, on the other hand, have no patent ducts and so accumulatemucins.
  • Peptide backbones of cancer mucins are not fully glycosylated and glycosylation that does occur is not complete.

Glycosylation of cancer mucins with mono- or di-saccharides such as Thomsen- Friedenreich antigen (TF), Tn and sialylated Tn (sTn) O-linked to serines or threonines is especially common. Expression of these mono- and disaccharides correlates with a more aggressive phenotype and a more ominous prognosis.

Structures of TF, Tn and sTn Antigens

Fig.1 Structures of TF, Tn and sTn Antigens

TF (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-serine/threonine), Tn (GalNAcα1-O-serine/threonine) and sTn (NANAα2-GalNAcα1-O-serine/threonine) are expressed in 50–80% of various epithelial cancers. The structures of TF, Tn, and sTn linked to serine/ threonin are shown in Figure 1. STn trimer (cluster) is the epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody B72.3, and TF and sTn are closely associated with the clustered epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody CC49. Clinical trials of radiolabeled CC49 administered IP in patients with breast cancer and ovarian cancer at this center and elsewhere have shown excellent targeting. TF has also been used successfully as a target for cancer imaging. TF, Tn, and sTn are expressed to a lesser extent on a variety of normal tissues, where they are expressed predominately as occasional monomers at luminal surfaces. Immunohistology performed with mAbs identifying these trimers (clusters) react strongly with a variety of epithelial cancers but only minimally, or not at all, with normal tissues, suggesting that focusing on the trimers of Tn, sTn and TF further increases the tumor specificity of the immune response. Immunization with TF and Tn has been shown to protect mice from subsequent challenge with syngeneic cancer cell lines expressing these antigens. Hence both active and passive immunotherapy trials have identified TF, Tn and sTn antigens as uniquely effective targets for cancer targeting and immunotherapy.

TF, Tn, and sTn Based Cancer Vaccines

Creative Biolabs is developing TF, Tn, and sTn based cancer vaccines including:

Creative Biolabs is a leader in the field of vaccine development and has focused on the cancer vaccines for years. We have experienced experts and advanced platforms that are able to provide excellent services. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more details.


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