G250 refers to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that was raised more than 10 years ago by immunization of mice with human renal cell carcinoma(RCC) homogenates. The RCC-associated transmembrane protein designated G250 has since been proven to be identical to tumor-associated protein MN or CA IX. The normal function of CA IX is to catalyze the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid, playing a role in the intra- and extracellular pH regulation of cells. It has been implicated as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia and as a prognostic marker for several types of human tumors. CA IX has also been shown to be a useful prognostic biomarker for RCC.
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