Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for almost one third of all kinds of cancers in children within the age ranging from 3 to 5 and affects slightly more boys than girls. This disease results from numerous of redundant immature white blood cell (WBC), which crowds out normal WBC, leading the immune system into a dangerous situation of fighting microbe invasion. The exact causes to this disease are still not clear, however, exposure to radiation or benzene, smoking, drinking more than two cups of coffee during pregnancy may increase the risk of childhood ALL. Some other factors such as genetic conditions or viuses infection also play roles in the origination of this blood tumor.
Signs, symptoms and treatments
Symptoms of ALL include frequent infections, fever, pale skin, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, bone pain, lumps in the neck and small red spots under the skin. In ALL clinical treatments, conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy or stem cell transplantation always followed with serious side effects or rejection reaction. Gene-engineered-methods have developed a heartening road via redirecting T cells to target tumors antigens more effectively to perform the anti-tumor function of T cells.
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